Seeing and Being Seen Scholarship

Week 4 - Identities

Kupfer- mappamundi 'reinvents the world', global space unable to be seen yet - map is a divine vision, diety in the map = creation

Rubin - argues against idea Medieval people didn't have a sense of identity, church's ideas of moral selfhood etc., identify by gender, language, religion, name etc, fluidity of class after the BD

Rowe - rumours of Jews killing children e.g. William of Norwich, 'Jews...remained stationary in useless antiquity', 'a living fossil' of the texts of the church, Jewish Talmud, 4th Lateran Council 1215 - regulations on clothes, trade etc., Synagogue an idealised image of Judaism that stood in contrast to the treatment of actual Jewish people, she is blind, rejected, crown falls, no longer God's chosen - but the basis of Ecclesia so can't be destroyed completely

Camille - Jews either OT prophets or heretics, disagreed with idolatry, but Christians focused on image of golden calf, Jews would see Synagogue as idolatry, Jews = spectacle by being made to wear different clothes, Medieval art 'often utlises the same abhorrent structures of distortion as Nazi art'

Dobson - 1190 massacre/suicide in York, link to crusade propaganda against Muslims

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Week 4 - Identities and Margins

Bradbury - Taymouth Hours- funeral Jew small, twisted, angular, eyes just creases, upturned nose, York Minster Lady Chapel - Jew tiny, apostle tall, howls in pain, flat nose, gaping mouth

Mills- mundus inversus = sexual inversion, women either Mary or Eve, animals often = base instincts/ fallen humanity, Luttrell psalter - muslin with blue skin, hooked nose, Jews/Muslims like 'monstrous races' e.g. on mappamundi

Norton - wallpaintings on Chapter House ceiling and above door

Hardwick - subtext in margins comments on more 'elevated' main areas, Hamburger: 'marginalia...derives its meaning from its contexts', monkey's funeral linking to window - inclusion of St. Peter (intercessor), monkeys = base contemplating the divine?, monkeys as way into space

Janson - apes = physical aspects of man without the 'spiritual endowment'

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Week 4 - Margins

Binski - centre 'seeks refreshments of reinvigoration from the margins', 'pleasure needs putting back' into the margins, 'edges...in constant dialogue with centre', previously seen in opposition to centre's 'sublime simplicity', 'the parodic and nonsensical flourished not because they stood in antagonism to the centre, but because they were an aspect of it'

Camille - edges of world = limits of representation, edges in maps = banished/dangerous, sexuality in margins - edges of acceptibility, illuminators never reading texts so edges = freedom, Male- Gothic image 'free of thought', 'means nothing' 

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Week 4 - Margins

Binski - centre 'seeks refreshments of reinvigoration from the margins', 'pleasure needs putting back' into the margins, 'edges...in constant dialogue with centre', previously seen in opposition to centre's 'sublime simplicity', 'the parodic and nonsensical flourished not because they stood in antagonism to the centre, but because they were an aspect of it'

Camille - edges of world = limits of representation, edges in maps = banished/dangerous, sexuality in margins - edges of acceptibility, illuminators never reading texts so edges = freedom, Male- Gothic image 'free of thought', 'means nothing' 

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Week 5 - Westminster and Richard II

Binski - commemorative policy of Westminster - Richard making tombs for father/ grandfather, portrait - distant, state likeness, seperated from viewer by rank

Coldstream - Stone of Scone, link to Edward I, importance of previous monarchs

Saul -

  • Richard: Convinced of 'God given nature of his office', 'marked by a self conciousness entirely lacking in his predecessors', 'obsessive interest in projecting and manipulating his own image', portrait like a close up of Christ, 1391 language of 'your majesty, highness' etc., seeing himself as 'sacred icon, supreme and all powerful, focus on defending royal prerogative', Giles' De Regime Principum - honour and privilege of king
  • Diptych: fusion of religion/secular, kingship as 'God's substitute', saints = aims of Richard (peaceful rule of Edward, faith of Edmund), subject's duty to 'honour, cherish and obey the king'

Munby - Westminster a 'supreme expression of kingship', portrait 'displays the public face of kingship', diptych 'reflects the private side

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Week 5 - Westminster and Richard II

Gordon- personal heraldry/ saints suggests commissioned by Richard, youthful face could mean post-death painting, made for Order of Passion? - emphasis on broomcod and passion, dowry of Virgin under Richard's protection, portable = private devotion, Richard as focal point, broomcod = alliance with Charles VI

Mitchell - Richard asking for Evangelist's ring 1386, gave £100/ year to rebuilding Ed Con's shrine, impaling of arms = personal relationship e.g. marriage, Edmund's tunic = sunburst motif = on tomb, use of saints to buttress own position, JB embroidered on gown, diptych showing Richard as 'the personification of England and English sacral kingship', 'visual expression of Richard's own high views of his religion and his kingship'

Campbell- full face = confrontation with viewer, gilded background usually only for religious paintings

Barron - Richard 'developed a concept of kingship which emphasised the priestly rather than the military aspects' 

Perkinson - Heraldry = representing individuals, outside appearances = identity, new naturalism

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Week 5 - Westminster and Richard II

Alexander - portrait hierarchal frontal pose, new ideas of monarchy - kingship as holy and inherited vs. individual ability to rule

Wilson - 13 king statues = evokes altar piece and 13 apostles, roofs in major buildings = representations of heaven

Keen - diptych a crusading image, Order of Passion 'decidedly similar' to Ressurection banner

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Week 6- Books and Reading

Wright - ritualism of psalms, rhythm = easily memorable, large initial letter = clarity of access

Camille - Luttrell Psalter - status through servants, heraldic backdrops, margins all things you can eat, eating/drinking = metaphor for ruminating word of God, daughters 'marginal member of her father's lineage'

Backhouse - Geoffrey with wife and daughter in law - heraldry, margins = everyday life, relationship between lord and tenants, peasant's garb unrealistic - for aesthetic, a private tool for teaching/ showing status

De Hamel - Offices of Dead. Penitential = protection against sudden death, secular use - could be customised, first and only book many knew

Smith (intro) - increased 'lay engagement with forms of spirituality', patronage of women not exceptional, part of religious life (Gee), 'catalyst for self reflection', women keepers of family heraldry, 'quintessential Gothic image of devotional literacy for women' = St. Anne and virgin

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Week 6- Books and Reading

Sekules - women beating men in marginalia - common subject, inverting norm, women as Eve or Mary, woman as 'confusion of man', Virgin role model for women, marginal images of women = satirize female virtues/ allusions to sex, women in medieval art only stereotypes, not individuals

Marks - cult of St. Anne late 13th c.

Gee - women including husband's arms in books for status, the increased sin of women = more need for prayer, Lambeth Apocalypse shield of faith

Duffy - 'Books for everyone' but not till 15th c., post-Black Death interest in books, 'tokens of worldly wealth' as well as spiritual devotion

Cullum and Goldberg - All Saints Blackburn window, Bolton Hours for Alice Bolton - to teach daughters, St Anne model of a modern devout mother, 3 daughters of Margaret = 3 daughters of Anne

Norton - importance of St. Anne to Dominican friars = importance of teaching, St. Anne popular 1350-75

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Week 6- Books and Reading

Scase - St Anne image intersecting with rise in literacy, 14th c. Franciscans arguing Mary was also an immaculate conception, offered up to God, St. Anne in 9th c. Pseudo-Matthew gospel, 14th c. reimagining - education at home with Anne not temple, Mary reading as prep for later role

Shiegorn - St. Anne 'promulgated the notion of mother as teacher and daughters as apt and willing pupils', link to Mary's education and those of nuns, St. Anne trinity 'emphasises the lineage of Christ's physical body', importance of How the Good Wife Taught her Daughter poem

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Week 7 - Death

Binski - effigies - collective identity, popularity of bronze amoung episcopal classes, macabre = metaphor for change, decay in Middle Ages, 3 Living 3 Dead - other, doppleganger, De Lisle Franciscan links, death marginalised images, transi tonbs - double, 'feeling for the threatening and the grotesque', Latin on Chicele 'undercuts the essentially democratic theme of death as a leveller', 'teased by what ordinarily we should not be seeing, 'we mourn ourselves' - ponder on ourselves, nudity = desexed/ desocialised, death universal, purgatory disturbing the binary of the afterlife

Marks - rising from obscuring to high office, 'I was born poor'

Sandler - 3 Living 3 Dead a 'framed diptych', dramatic contrasts, 'so hideous and denuded am I even the worms scorn me'

Lindley- Black death - emergence of new middle class, perpendicular style (but Glouchester Cathedral built before), increase in foreign manuscript production

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Week 7 - Death

Saul - tomb - memento mori, 'the mood of the age was one of pessimism, anxiety and insecurity', transi-tomb a 'strategy of salvation' - prompts reflection, obsessive interest in securing intercessory prayer

Wilson - Chichele's tomb - 'purpose of shocking the individual into recognition his true, mortal nature and thereby introducing a prayerful, penitent state of mind', archbishop raised up to become lower - wheel of fortune, hope of resurrection with Christ statues

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