Medieval idea of Charisma

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 19-01-18 22:37
Who first began to use this term?
Weber
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What was his definition of charisma?
Charisma was alluring but potentially dangerous, as a source of political authority
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What kind of quality was it important to the 12th C?
A romantic, heroic wuality
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What si the actual definition of Charisma?
Attractiveness or charm that can inspire devotion in others
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What is the question about charisma and the middle ages?
Was Charisma in the Middle ages the same as now
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For Bernard of Clairvaux, what do historians say about if he had charisma?
Generally acceptance he did
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What was his charisma linked to?
Miracles
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Which historian created the link between charismatic body-charismatic text?
Gaeger
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What did he say about this age of vitality?
The 'charismatic body' was giving way to age of 'charismatic text'
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How does Bernard have a charismatic body?
Bernard is one of the last saints that his presence made things happen
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Why was art important in spreading charisna?
As it represented the individual in a vision of truth-Not everyone was able to meet him- What was important is what they see about him
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What was beginning to happen based on art?
Shift from biography to artistic expressions,
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give an example of how admirers have tried to capture the essence of charisma and influence?
In Bernard's hagiography the VIta Prima
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What was their aim for this hagiography?
To canonise Bernard
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Who wrote book one?
Willian of St Thiery
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However, why wasn't it finished?
he died 1148
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What relation did William have with Bernard?
They were close friends- Knew each other since 1119 and was a Benedict Monk but joined Bernard's new order
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How far did he get in his book?
1130
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Who wrote book 2?
Arnold, Abbot of Bonneval near Chartres
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Did he write this alone?
He knew some of the people close to Bernard in the 30s- Planning invovled? Communal project
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What part of Bernard did they focus son?
They focused on the road as a healer and a preacher and the Papal Schism occuring at the time- Bernard backed Innocent II
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Who wrote the last three books?
Geoffrey of Auxuerre
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What relation did Geoffrey have to Bernard?
A monk at his monastery, secretary and companion after 1140, a Paris scholar, won over to Cistercions by Bernard's preaching
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When did he stop writing?
Soon after Bernard's death
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What was their main mission in the Vita Prima?
To canonise Bernard due to his charisma
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Were they successful?
Canonised in 1174- 20 years after his death which is very significant
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Why did they write the Prima based on what saints had to do?
'Those who had lived a life of heroic virtue', -Supernaturally intervene in peoples lives, even beyond the grave'
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How did they shape the writing to show Bernards what?
Bernards sanctity- Wanted to make him father of monasticism and make him a saint,
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What is one major part of his charisma?
His miracles and visions
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When were his first involvements outside the order?
1128-29
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What new monastic order did he form and what was their purpose?
Knights Templar- Purpose to fight for Christ in Holy Land
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What affairs did he get more involved in in 1128?
Public affairs became theatre of commitment for Bernard
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What was he a leading figure in at the time causing religious conflict?
The papal schism
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Who claimed to be the Popes?
Anacletus II v Innocent II
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What was the turning point in his involvement?
Travelled in taly to negotiate with churchmen and lay fiugres
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How did he describe himself in one of these councils?
'I am a sort of modern chimaera, neither cleric nor layman. I have kept the habit of a monk but I have long abandoned the life'
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WHo did Bernard support?
Innocent II
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How di dBernard use his charisma in this situation?
He wrote to "consuls, councillors and all the people", he accompanied Innocent and persuade those to accept Innocent,
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When is another situation in which Bernard shows charisma/
Second Crusade 1146-9
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What did he do when Pope Eugenius III issued a bull accouncing the crusade?
He seemed to have success in rallying people's spirits in Flanders, Rhineland and other German lands- Encouraged listeners to root out Jews, who killed Jesus
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What occured in this crusade preaching shown in the Vita Prima?
Many miracles- Takes up almost 50 columns
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However in his early life as a Monk, what problem did he have and strugle with?
He had severe stomach problems with the Monk diet- Caused severe illness
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In addition, due to these health problems, what does Mc Guire say about inspiration?
Difficult to accept his way fo life as admirable- Practices ruined his health
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How did Smalley describe him?
"sick man living on his nerves"
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In terms of psychological health, what did McGuire say about ths?
Bernard may have been a manic depressive- Dejected and confessed himself unworthy
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Why was Joan of Arc and her charisma so important?
She covered charisma in military battle field, which was predominately male domianted as well as in reliigous aspect which was also male dominated
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For Joan of Arc, how does taylor present her?
A saint, but also a victim of th emedieval church, a challenge of socal order, but defender of the monarchy, a role model and inspiration, but also fraud and madwoman
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How does Kelly present her?
Saint, heretic, religious zealot, seer demented teenager, protofeminist, aristocratic, wanna-be, saviour of France, Marxist Liberator, "turner of the tide"
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However why does she criticise Taylor?
For her few words about her capaibilities as a military leader, despite this being central to her fame
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What appraoch does Maddox take with describing JOna of Arc?
Simple appraoch
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How does she present Jona?
Suggesting she was a girl who led an army and was burned at the stake- Been in art and poetry since 15th C
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However, what importance does she emphasise about popular notions v facts?
Popular notions of Joan of Arc didn't always conform to historical facts
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Who emphasises she came from a peasant family?
Taylor
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However who refutes this based on popular depictions?
Maddox- She was depicted in art as living in poverty but her father wasn't poor, but a village spokesman
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GOve an example of Joans charisma at the beginning of her life?
She heard voices at the age of 13 and persuaded those that she was to sav France by expelling its enemies and install Charles as rightful King. In addition she persauded Charles to give her an army to take Orleans
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Were her soldiers loyal to her?
Joan promised victory, which motivated lotalty and further victory
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Did the leaders accept her?
Not at first
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Give an example of when she harshly rebuked the French captains?
******* of Orleans- Defended a near disastrous strategy for Orleans to Joan- She replied "in the name of God, the counsel of our Lord God is surer and wiser than yours"
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Did this bickering among leaders afect loyalty?
No-Didn't seem to have influenced the soliders- May have helped her as she brought victory and action, while older generals had achieved little,
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For contemporary views of her, how did Simon Charles describe her in battle?
"Joan was very simple in all her actions, except in the conduct of war, in which she was an expert"
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Who said "the woman was made the leader of war"
Pope Pius II
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Did she kil peope?
No she refused to use her sword in battle or shed blood, preferign to carry her standard again
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Who suggested a reason for now killing a battle and what reason?
Jean d'Aulon, -Unable to suggger sight of blood,
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However what was she more known for?
Her religious devotion
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Does Taylor say her religious role was unique?
No-Being a visionary and holy woman wasn't unique- Other famous individuals such as Margery Kempe
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However, who disagrees and why?
Kelly- Suggests this religiousness as the key source behind her men's support
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For example how did she inspire loyalty rather than by providing terrestrial possessions?
She offered them religious possibilities, even salvation.
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Taylor concedes that while she wasn't a unique visionary, why was she still extraordinary?
She was a young peasant girl who not only gained access to the King but also persuaded him to entrust her with a posion in the army,
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Although, why does what historian suggest it wasn't unusual f or her to go to war?
-Maddox, -For the area she grew up had burgundy raiders
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What English author believed Joan kep her troops in line by "crafte of sorcerie"
Btur
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What did the Bourgeois of Paris say kept her troops in line?
"all who disobeyed her would be killed without mercy"
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Who said everyone followed her?
The King's squire
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Who was she compared to in the Bible?
Those from the Old Testament like Deborah, Esther, or Judith from the Old Testament- Spiritual women who brought their people relief because they followed their messages from God,
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Was she religious when in everyday life?
Yes- Attended confession ofte, devoted herself to prayer, heard mass every day,
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For her military miracles which inspired loyalty, what is an example based on passing through enemy territory?
Passed without hindrance through almost all of enemy held Burgundy on route to the King without hindrance
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What is another miracle based on completing what she said she would?
She raised the siege of the town of Orleans, and had conveyed the King to his coronation at Reims, as she said
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What is another miracle based on ships and wind?
When winds needed to change to allow ships carrying provisions into Orelans, they did when Joan said
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What aspect of William Marshal could have charisma?
Rituals of knighthood
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When was Marshal knighted/
1167
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What household was he transferred to?
Earl of Salisbury
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This drew him to Eleanor of Aquitance who did what?
Assigned him to train Henry, heir to the throne
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When did he have his own knights and serve the King?
By 1180s,
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what was the key to his success?
Royal service- He served four Kings
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Who did he mary?
Isabel de Clare- largest heiress in Kingdom
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What si the actual definition of Charisma?

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