Unit 4 Psychology: Addiction

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Lerman (Overview)
Biological Overview: Link between smoking and dopamine regulation.
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Comings (Overview)
Biological Overview: Link between cannabis and genes in the brain system.
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Merikengas
Biological Overview: 36% of relatives of alcoholics were diagnosed with the disease later on.
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Heath
Biological Overview: Adopted children were also alcoholics.
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Liebman & Cooper (1996)
Biological Overview: People with addictions have inherited a sensitive mesolimbic dopamine pathway.
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Beck (2001)
Cognitive Overview/Cognitive Smoking/Cognitive Gambling: Vicious circle. Addictive behaviour = Financial problems = Low mood = Addictive behaviour.
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Hansen (1991)
Cognitive Overview: People who abuse alcohol are more likely to perceive less negative consequences.
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Wikler
Behavioural Overview: Recovered patients felt withdrawal symptoms when in the same room where they use to use the drugs.
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Forshaw (2002)
Evaluation: Both environmental factors and biological factors need to be taken into account.
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Lerman (1999) (Smoking Initiation)
Biological Smoking: Initiation. People with the SLC6A3-9 were less likely to start smoking.
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Shachter (1977)
Biological Smoking: Maintenance. Smokers continue to to smoke enough nicotine to avoid withdrawal symptoms.
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Sabol
Biological Smoking: Maintenance. People without the SLC6A3-9 gene were more likely to continue smoking.
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Lerman (Smoking Relapse)
Biological Smoking: Relapse. Smokers who have been deprived of nicotine during withdrawal show increased brain activity.
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Heishman
Cognitive Smoking: Initiation. Smoking can help people concentrate with increased attention focus and enhanced performance.
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Bergh
Biological Gambling: Initiation. Link between pathological gambling, the reward-system, genetics, and impulsive behaviour.
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Comings (Gambling Initiation)
Biological Gambling: Initiation. Gamblers are more likely to carry the D2A1 gene.
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Wray & Dickerson
Biological Gambling: Maintenance. Gamblers that are prevented from the behaviour go through withdrawal symptoms.
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Potenza (2003)
Biological Gambling: Maintenance. When gamblers were shown a video of gambling, blood flow in their brains changed before they showed an emotional response.
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Ciarrochi
Biological Gambling: Relapse. Addictions to gambling often lead to other addictions. Addictions may switch when giving up gambling.
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Sharpe & Tarrier
Cognitive Gambling: Cognitive influences cause physiological effects.
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Marcoux & Shope (1997)
TPB: TPB is an important factor in alcoholism.
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Ogden (TPB)
TPB: Evaluation. In some studies there are no roles for subjective norms, control, or attitudes. Information can be falsely recalled due to social desirability bias.
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Kelley (1967)
Factors: Attribution. Positive and negative attribution styles.
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Rutter
Factors: Attribution. Internal and external locus of control.
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Ogden (Factors)
Factors: Social context. Females used cigarettes as a weight loss strategy.
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Strasburger (1995)
Factors: Media. Negative. Tobacco used to be heavily advertised in the 1990's.
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Hazan (1994)
Factors: Media. Negative. Television stars light up cigarettes at three times the rate of American adults.
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Sargent (2007)
Factors: Media. Negative. Exposure to smoking in movies predicted the risk of the observer becoming an established smoker.
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Hanewinkel (2008)
Factors: Media. Negative. There was a 'dose response' between smoking in movies and adolescent initiation.Adolescents who watched PG or R rated films were 66% more likely to smoke.
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Korn (2008)
Factors: Media. Negative. In interviews, participants found gambling advertisements as influential, cool, and indicating financial gain.
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Hyung-Seok (2007) (Negative)
Factors: Media. Negative. Advertising depicts gambling positively and encourages people to gamble.
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Signorelli (1990)
Factors: Media. Positive. Television characters were 9 times more likely to smoke in 1964 than 1982. At the same time, smoking in society decreased.
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Friend & Levy (2002)
Factors: Media. Positive. Well funded mass-media campaigns combined with a tobacco control programme reduced smoking rates.
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Klein (2005)
Factors: Media. Positive. Anti-smoking campaigns combined with telephone help services informed and helped people with their smoking.
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Hyung-Seok (2007) (Positive)
Factors: Media. Positive. If the media's representation of gambling was negative, then people would view gambling negatively.
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Shram (2008)
Vulnerability: Age. Administered nicotine to rats, and found that adolescent rats were more sensitive to the rewards but less sensitive to the adverse effects,.
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Health Canada Youth Smoking Survey (2006)
Vulnerability: Age. Early onset smokers were more likely to drink alcohol (91%-52%), binge drink (58%-23%, and smoke cannabis (50%-5%). Cigarettes are a 'gate-way' drug to other drug uses.
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Sussman & Ames (2001)
Vulnerability: Peer pressure. Friend and peer use of drugs is a strong predictor of drug use among teenagers. Family conflict and poor supervision are also important factors.
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Bullers (2001)
Vulnerability: Peer pressure. In a longitudinal study, peer groups indicated both individual drinking and group drinking. This shows that social selection is more important than social influence.
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Hajek (2010)
Vulnerability: Stress. Smokers smoke to apparently relieve stress. However, smoking actually increases stress levels. People self medicate to relieve the stress of not smoking.
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Driessen (2008)
Vulnerability: Stress. 30% of drug addicts and 15% of alcoholics also suffer from post traumatic stress disorder.
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Hollander
Biological Intervention: Drugs. Mood stabilizers compared to a placebo found that the drug reduced urges and thoughts of gambling, but did not lose less money or gamble less than the placebo group.
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Feeney
Psychological Intervention: CBT. 14% of alcoholics who used CBT abstained from alcohol compared to 38% who used CBT and drugs together.
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Floyd
Psychological Intervention: CBT. Placed students into three groups. Groups with a warning message engaged in less risky play.
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Academy of Medical Sciences (2004)
Pubic Intervention: Between 1989 and 2000 the money spent on adverts rose, and so did the amount of alcohol consumed by 11-15 year-olds.
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Snyder (2006)
Pubic Intervention: Strong correlation between amount spent on adverts and amount of alcohol drank by 15-26 year-olds.
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Ogden (2007) (Public Intervention)
Pubic Intervention: People given more advice from their doctor about quitting were more likely to stop and abstain from smoking.
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Room (2005)
Pubic Intervention: Brief interventions when alcoholism is in its infancy have been successful.
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Benowitz (2007)
Pubic Intervention: A gentle reduction in nicotine showed that none of the smokers increased the amount of cigarettes that they smoked.
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Tengs (2005)
Pubic Intervention: A computer simulation predicted that a gradual reduction in nicotine would result in a decline in smoking occurrence.
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Biological Overview: Link between cannabis and genes in the brain system.

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Comings (Overview)

Card 3

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Biological Overview: 36% of relatives of alcoholics were diagnosed with the disease later on.

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Card 4

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Biological Overview: Adopted children were also alcoholics.

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Card 5

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Biological Overview: People with addictions have inherited a sensitive mesolimbic dopamine pathway.

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