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Psychology A2 Unit 4
Schizophrenia, Addictive Behaviour
and Research Methods…read more

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Classification and Diagnosis and issues surrounding these

Slide 3

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Issues surrounding the classification
and diagnosis of Schizophrenia
· AO1 points include:
· DSM-IV is a diagnostic manual · Schizophrenia is a psychotic
aiming to categorise mental disorder
disorders, along with the ICD-10
it is used by psychologists to · Positive and Negative symptoms
diagnose. (Crow)
· The most important factor when · Course of the disorder (Episodic
considering the use of diagnostic illness, same precedence in men
manuals is their reliability and and women, onset in early
validity, this can be affected by
different factors such as adulthood, early psychologists
­ Aetiological validity (does the believe it was untreatable but
disorder always have the same Johnstone argued that 2/3 make
­ Predictive validity (can a substantial recovery
diagnosis predict the future of · Types of schizophrenia (Paranoid,
the disorder) Catatonic, Undifferentiated etc.)
­ Reliability (will all psychologists
agree on a diagnosis based on
the listed diagnostic criteria)…read more

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· Rosenhans study `Of being Sane in Insane Places'
· Cultural Differences in diagnosis (Copeland)
· Stigmatising nature of schizophrenia diagnosis (Scheff)
· Overlap with other disorders, leading to failure to diagnose
what disorder is responsible for each symptom
· Very important to get diagnosis right in order to treat
effectively (Jackson and Birchwood)
· Varying prognosis means that the diagnosis does not have
predictive validity
· The diagnostic manuals prevent overlap by having
individual classifications but this reduces the validity of a
`schizophrenia' diagnosis
· Inter-rater reliability extremely low, Whaley found it to be
as low as 0.11…read more

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Slide 6

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Biological Explanations for Schizophrenia
· A01 points include
· Genetic Factors shown by twin (Gottesman) and
adoption studies (Tienari)
· Biochemical Explanations. Dopamine Hypothesis
(More neurones firing causing disorganised
thinking as a result of either more receptors or
more dopamine in the brain (Comer)
· Neuroanatomical factors, Enlarged Ventricles
· Different types caused by genetic or
neurodevelopmental insults (Crow)…read more

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