Slides in this set
Nicotine Replacement Therapy
· Nicotine binds to nicotinic receptors, triggering dopamine release
which is positively reinforcing (released during eating, sex etc.).
· Unpleasant withdrawal symptoms poor concentration, irritability
etc. are negatively reinforcing.
· NRT provide nicotine to keep symptoms away, and e-cigarettes
provide the sensory experiences that many miss.
· Ether and Bullen 90% of e-cigarette users said it helped them
quit/cut down as it provides sensory features that add to the
smoking pleasure for addicts.
· NRT avoids tar and other carcinogenic chemicals in cigarette smoke,
but nicotine can raise blood pressure and cause CVD.
· NRT does not break addiction or address its underlying causes just
· A synthetic drug that mimics heroin's effects but is less addictive.
· Heroin binds to opioid receptors, producing euphoria.
· When levels start to fall, leads to withdrawal symptoms (tremors,
· Methadone deals with withdrawal symptoms by binding to receptors.
· Doses are calculated to keep the user stable, rather than producing
same heroin highs.
· Avoids withdrawal symptoms and means addicts do not need to associate
with drug users, removing conditioned cues.
· Methadone is addictive, so swapping one addiction for another, and doesn't
address the psychological needs that brought addiction. This means users
often take other drugs/alcohol on top due to methadone's lack of `high'.
· UK Statistics Authority 300 people died on methadone in the UK in 2007,
but unclear how many were due to additional drug-taking, alcohol etc.…read more
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
· Used to help people think clearly about their addiction:
The circumstances that led to it are examined.
Fault thinking about addiction is challenged.
New ways of coping with addiction are learned.
· A pathological gambler will look at why they started, why they
continue when they keep losing and how to avoid future
· CBT deals with the causes of addiction, unlike biological
· Ladouceur et al. 86% of gamblers treated with CBT no longer
had the DSM criteria for pathological gambling and increased
· However, time-consuming and expensive.…read more
· Sindelar et al. two conditions for methadone patients
· When tested negative for drugs, the reward condition would
· Found negative tests were 60% higher in the reward group.
· Operant conditioning participants knew they would be
rewarded for abstaining. Positive reinforcement meant they did.
· Does not address the psychological causes of the addiction.
· The reward focus on one addictive behaviour could increase
another one (EG. alcohol).…read more
Smoke-Free Working Environment
· An environment where smoking is allowed provides smokers
with the conditioned cues (sight, smell etc.) associated with
· This makes it more difficult for smokers to give up as
individuals begin to crave.
· A smoke-free environment removes these conditioned cues,
breaking associations with smoking.
· Fichtenberg and Glantz smoke-free workplaces encouraged
4% to quit and remaining smokers to reduce intake on
average by three cigarettes a day.
· Compared with potential impact of tax increases tax would
have to double to have the same impact.…read more