Health and social care Unit 2 Learning aim A

  • Created by: Ali682
  • Created on: 26-01-19 16:32
Doctors
Provide medical care for patients. They work mainly in surgeries and local communities.
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Doctors (2)
Diagnose, treat, monitor and prevent illness. Provide prescriptions for treatment and arrange preventative care, such as flu immunisation. Refer patients to other health professionals such as specialist doctors and therapists.
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Specialist doctors
Have expert training in particular areas. They work mainly in hospitals and clinics.
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Specialist doctors (2)
Diagnose, treat, monitor and prevent illness in specialist areas such as cardiology, oncology, paediatrics and geriatrics. Liaise with other professionals such as nurses to carry out treatment in hospital. Contribute to teams for ongoing patient care
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Nurses
Carry out medical duties at their level of seniority and specialism, mainly in hospitals, surgeries and clinics.
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Nurses (2)
Monitor and care for the daily chronic and acute medical needs of patients. Support doctors in giving treatment and prescribed drugs. Work to restore health and wellbeing.
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Midwives
Work mainly in hospital maternity units, clinics and homes.
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Midwives (2)
Monitor the prenatal development and health of mothers and babies. Help deliver babies. Provide postnatal care, supporting mothers, babies and families after the birth.
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Healthcare assistants
Are trained to help with daily personal care and to support wellbeing. They work mainly in hospitals, clinics, residential care and homes
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Healthcare assistants
Work under the guidance of qualified professionals, such as nurses or doctors. Meet care needs such as washing, toileting, making beds, feeding and mobility. Monitor health by taking temperature, pulse, respiration rate and weight.
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Occupational therapists
Facilitate recovery and overcome practical barriers. They work mainly in hospitals, clinics, residential care and homes.
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Occupational therapists (2)
Identify issues people may have in everyday life, such as with dressing, shopping or working. Help people to work out practical solutions.
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GP surgeries and local health centres
Patients go here first when they need medical advice. Doctors diagnose the patients illness, they may issue a prescription for medication or refer patients to other services. Nurses might carry out treatment or health screening, or take blood tests.
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Hospitals
Patients go here for treatment that a GP cannot give. Patients are referred by their GPs to specialist and medical teams. Specialist doctors may issue a prescription for specialist medication or refer patients to surgeons for operations.
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Clinics
Patients go here to be treated for specific medical conditions. Patients are referred by their GPs to specialist clinics based in hospitals and in the community. Trained personnel including doctors and nurses work in clinics.
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Home
This is where care is provided for housebound people or those who are recovering from medical treatment such as an operation. Most people prefer to recover at home and some who are dying prefer to be nursed at home.
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Home (2)
Care may be provided at home for births. Patients are treated at home by community-based nursing and midwifery staff. Doctors carry out home visits when necessary.
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Care manager
Is responsible for the day-to-day running of a residential care setting. Care settings include hospices, supported housing and homes for people who needs nursing or help with day-to-day living, who have conditions such as dementia or who are disabled
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Care managers (2)
Recruit and manage staff. Control the budget. Are responsible for ensuring that the services in the care setting meet National care Standards. Put polices and procedures in place and make sure they are adhered to.
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Care assistants
Are trained to help people of all ages who need to carry out their day-to-day routines in homes, day care centres and residential care.
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Care assistants (2)
Meet personal needs such as washing, toileting, dressing and feeding. Assist in monitoring health and wellbeing by liaising with other professionals. Help with transport, household tasks and taking people shopping.
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Social workers
Are trained to help a wide range of people of all ages to find solutions to their problems. They work mainly in social care centres, homes and clinics.
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Social workers (2)
Protect vulnerable people from harm and abuse. Help people to live independently. Support children who live apart from their families and support their foster carers. Help people with mental health problems, learning difficulties.
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Youth workers
Help the personal and educational growth of people aged 11-25 to help them reach their full potential in society. They work mainly in youth centres, schools and colleges.
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Youth workers (2)
Manage and administer youth and community projects and resources. Monitor and review the quality of local youth work provision and work with families and carers. Support individuals in other settings, including outreach work relating to drinking etc.
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Support workers
Provide care support to a range of service users in homes, centres and residential care, supporting other social workers.
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Support workers (2)
Vary their duties depending on the needs and wishes of the individual. Support individuals' overall comfort and wellbeing under supervision of professionals. Help people who need care and support to live as independently as possible.
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Residential care settings
These are settings where people who cant be cared for at home or who feel that they can no longer cope with living on their own are looked after. They may provide full-time or temporary respite care to give a break to carers or those who struggle
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Residential care settings (2)
living on their own. Social care workers provide residents with personal care, such as washing, toileting and dressing.
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Domiciliary care
Social care workers provide care for people in their own home. Care workers help people lead their daily lives by supporting independence. Social care workers might help people with shopping, cleaning, transport such as taking them to a doctors
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Domiciliary care (2)
appointments. Social care workers can provide carers with a short break from their duties.
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Daycare centres
These are used by older people and those of physical and learning disabilities. They provide respite care. Social care workers might take part in leisure activities with people attending.
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Responsibilities of doctors and specialist doctors
Diagnosing illness. Prescribing treatment to promote healing and recovery. Referring patients to specialists. Liaising with multidisciplinary teams.
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Responsibilities of doctors and specialist doctors (2)
Creating and maintaining relationships of trust with patients. Observing, listening, responding. Maintaining patient records.Maintaining confidentiality. Acting in accordance with legislation.
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Responsibilities of Nurses
Observing condition of patients. Administering drugs and injections. Carrying out routine investigations. Preparing patients for operations
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Responsibilities of Nurses (2)
Providing care and counselling. Helping with recovery and rehabilitation. Writing patient care plans. Planning patient discharge from hospital. Acting as patient advocate.
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Responsibilities of midwives
Diagnosing, monitoring and examining pregnant women. Providing antenatal care, including screening tests. Assisting during labour. Supervising pain management.
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Responsibilities of midwives (2)
Preparing and reviewing patient care plans. Arranging and/or providing parenting and health education. Providing support and advice on the care of newborn babies. Providing support and advice following miscarriage, termination or neonatal death.
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Responsibilities of healthcare assistants
Monitoring patient conditions by taking temperature, pulse and respiration rate. Taking blood samples.Carrying out health checks. Weighing patients.
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Responsibilities of healthcare assistants (2)
Washing and dressing patients. Helping with patient mobility. Supporting day-to-day routine.Talking to patients working under the direction of nursing staff. Supporting and delivering health education.
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Responsibilities of occupational therapists
Being aware of acute medical conditions and how to overcome them in contexts such as A&E and acute medicine.
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Responsibilities of occupational therapists (2)
Advising on specialist equipment to assist with daily activities. Advising on home and workplace alterations. Assisting people to return to work. Coaching people with learning difficulties. Enabling rehabilitation.
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Responsibilities of care managers
Day to day running of residential care settings. Supervising work of care assistants. Ensuring quality of care meets standards and adheres to relevant legislation. Ensuring suitable staff are available.
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Responsibilities of care managers (2)
Creating and maintaining relationships of trust with residents. Maintaining accurate and relevant records. Observing. listening and responding to resident concerns. Maintaining confidentiality.
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Responsibilities of care assistants
Providing appropriate daily personal care. Carrying out general household tasks. Carrying out other routine roles as required by supervisor or service user. Liaising with other health and care professionals.
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Responsibilities of care assistants (2)
Working in different care settings. Observing and reporting changes in health and wellbeing of service user. Making service users feel at ease. Maintaining confidentiality.
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Responsibilities of social workers
Maintaining a designated case load. Maintaining a professional registration. Working within regulatory guidelines. Keeping informed of changes in policy and procedure. Liaising with other agencies.
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Responsibilities of social workers (2)
Preparing and reviewing case files of clients. Taking difficult decisions. Working with a variety of service users of different ages. Ensuring continuity of care
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Responsibilities of youth workers
Demonstrating values which underpin youth work. Completing a background check with the disclosure and barring service. Continuing professional development. Acting as a mentor to young people.
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Responsibilities of youth workers (2)
Working across different sector. Developing projects with schools and other organisations. Offering advice on topics such as sexual health using language which is accessible to young people.
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Responsibilities of support workers
Following instructions of health and care professionals. Implementing care plans agreed with social workers. Supporting members of families who provide care with parenting, financial or domestic skills.
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How can a individual with a physical disability be supported in their home?
Ensuring that they have access to all the rooms. Facilities are within reach and not at floor level. If necessary hoists are available in bedrooms and bathrooms.
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How can a individual with a physical disability be supported at a educational setting?
Ensuring that service users can access classrooms and laboratories. Disabled children have access to play facilities and exercise facilities. The curriculum is adapted to meet their needs.
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How can a individual with a physical disability be supported at work?
By providing awareness training for work colleagues. Providing a support worker to help the person in the workplace. Providing extra time, if necessary to complete tasks.
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How can a individual with a physical disability be supported at a leisure setting?
By providing accessible changing facilities, suitable signage e.g braille, access to adapted seating and spaces for elevated wheelchair viewing.
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Policies and procedures are in place to...
Ensure the health and safety of service users and health and social care workers. Support the day-to-day routines of service users. Enable the needs and preferences of service users to be met. Promote independence among service users.
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What is discrimination?
Discrimination is where someone is unfairly because of who they are. When they are treated unequally because of who they are and experiences prejudice that has been put into practice.
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What is direct discrimination?
Treating someone worse, differently or less favourably because of their characteristics. Examples include harassment and victimisation.
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What is indirect discrimination?
When an organisation's practices, policies or rules have a worse effect on some people than others. An example is pregnancy and maternity discrimination, if pregnant women or new mothers are treated unfairly or are disadvantaged.
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Equality Act 2010
The equality act 2010 protects people from discrimination by employers, health and care providers, schools colleges, transport services and public bodies.
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Characteristics protected by the Equality Act 2010
Gender and gender reassignment, Pregnancy and maternity, Religion and beliefs, Marital or civil partnership status, Disability, Sexual orientation, Age.
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The human rights Act 1998 guarantees an individual the right to...
Marry and found a family, Freedom of expression, Freedom of thought, conscience and religion, Respect for a private and family life, home and correspondence, Liberty and security of person, Freedom from slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory lab
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The human rights Act 1998 guarantees an individual the right to... (2)
labour, Freedom from torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Life, Access to an education, Peaceful enjoyment of possessions and protection of property.
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What is empowerment?
Empowerment means giving individuals information and support so that they can take informed decisions and make choices about their lives in order to live as independently as possible.
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How to empower service users?
Dealing with conflict in an appropriate way, Enabling users to express their needs and preferences, Promoting independence, Providing support that is consistent with users' beliefs, cultures and preferences, Promoting users' rights, choices and well
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How to empower service users? (2)
being, Balancing the right of individuals with those of other service users and staff, Putting users at the heart of service provision, Giving individualised care.
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Promoting individualised care...
Empowerment allows service users to understand the choices that they can make about their care, to contribute to the decision-making and to take control of their lives.
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Promoting and supporting individuals' rights to dignity and independence...
Empowering service users means that they are more likely to be treated an individuals. Their needs and preferences will be known and respectfully considered. This provides a context in which their rights to dignity and independence are promoted.
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Providing active support consistent with the beliefs, cultures and preferences of service users...
Health and care provision in a multi-cultural society must address the specific needs of people from diverse backgrounds. The beliefs, languages, traditions, diets and customs of service users will be many and varied.
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Supporting individuals who need health and social services to express their needs and preferences...
Individuals may need specific support to enable them to explain their needs and preferences. This support can be provided by translators and interpreters, signers, advocates, family and friends.
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Promoting the rights, choices and wellbeing of individuals who use health and care services and balancing their rights with those of other service users and staff...
Not able to provide service user of treatment of their choice. Can be conflict between the equally valid preferences of one service user and that of another. The clients right to choice and protecting their personal safety. Respect for culture.
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Dealing with conflict in health and social care settings
Tension and conflict between service users, and between service users and their carers is very common. Challenging behavior could be defined as any behavior that puts the service user or anybody else in the setting at risk, or significantly affects
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Dealing with conflict in health and social care settings (2)
their quality of life. Professional carers and staff should be trained to deal with conflict. Conflict may develop between service users and their doctors, or nurses between care workers and their clients and between the service users themselves.
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When dealing with conflict care practitioners need to...
Never resort to aggressive behaviour. Listen carefully. Try to see both sides of the argument or issue. Stay calm.
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If it seems that the situation may lead to violence, wherever possible...
Make sure that you know where the doors or other exit points are. Remove anything that could be used as a weapon. Allow the aggressor personal space. Summon help as soon as possible by using a panic alarm, shouting for help or by phoning the police.
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What are rights?
Rights are entitlements that everyone should receive. People's rights are protected by the laws of the UK such as the Human Rights Act 1998 and the Equality Act 2010.
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Key rights...
Independence. Privacy. Safety and security. Equality. To be free from discrimination. To express needs and preferences. Dignity.
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Possible risks in care...
Abuse by other service users and/or staff. Inadequate supervision of facilities such as bathrooms. Inadequate supervision of support, staff. Lack of illness prevention measures. Infection due to lack of clean facilities.Lack of maintained first aids.
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Managing risks in care...
Using risk assessments to identify possible sources of harm. Staff training to manage risks. Clear codes of practices. Appropriately qualified staff. Ensuring all staff have DBS. Regular and evidenced checks of facilities.
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Risk assessments
It is the responsibility of employers to ensure the health and safety of all who work for their company or organisations. Employers are responsible for the safety of volunteers, learners on work placement and all visitors.
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Risk assessments (2)
The Health and safety at work Act (1974) governs the requirements of employers and employees to ensure that they maintain a safe working environment for all.
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Employers must...
Ensure that the organisation has a robust health and safety policy and that there is someone with official responsibility for health and safety at the setting. Undertake a risk assessment to identify the risks and hazards at the workplace.
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Employers must... (2)
Provide up-to-date information on health and safety issues. Provide health and safety equipment to carry out all procedures and treatments. Provide health and safety training. Keep a record of all accidents and incidents.
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Employees must...
Take reasonable care of their own safety and that of others in the workplace, including service users, colleagues and visitors. Cooperate with their employer to carry out the agreed and required health and safety procedures of the workplace.
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5 steps of carrying out a risk assessment...
1. identify hazards at the setting, or in carrying out an activity. 2. identify those at risk including service users, staff, volunteers. 3. evaluate the risk. 4. identify ways to limit the risk. 5. review measures taken to minimise the risk.
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Stages of reporting incidents and accidents
Detect incident or accident. Record accident or incident. Report incident or accident to relevant person. Classify incident or accident according to type and severity. Prioritise issues for appropriate actions. Propose preventative measures.
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Stages of reporting incidents and accidents (2)
Implement changes to working practices. Monitor effectiveness of changes in preventing future incidents.
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What are the barriers to incident reporting?
The incident or accident is seen as not important at the time. The incident form is to long or requires too much detail. Care staff have other, more pressing duties. Staff may not know about reporting procedures.
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What are the problems with evidence?
Inconsistent witness statements. Lack of detail in statements. Poor recall of events. Written evidence that conflicts with other types of evidence. Low standard of written English.
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Four key points about complaints procedures
1. All care settings must have them in place. 2. All care settings must enable service users to access and use them. 3.They are checked when care providers are inspected. 4. They can lead to service improvements.
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What are the rights services users have to complain?
For complaints to be dealt with within an appropriate time frame, complaints to be taken seriously, full and thorough investigations of concerns raised, information about the outcomes of investigations into their complaints.
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What does RIDDOR stand for?
Reporting of injures, diseases and dangerous occurrences regulations (2013)
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Provision of first aid facilities
The provision of first aid in health and care settings is governed by the Health and Safety regulations (1981). Provision for first aid should be 'adequate and appropriate'.
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Provision of first aid facilities (2)
All first aid facilities occurring in care settings must be recorded. either in the accident book or by completing the setting's accident form. The report should include: the name of the casualty, the nature of the incident /injury, the time, date
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Provision of first aid facilities (3)
and location of the incident and a record of the treatment given.
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Complaints procedure
All care organisations must have complaints procedures and these are also checked when the setting is inspected. Complaints should not be regarded as a purely negative activity but rather as a source of information that will help improve the service.
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Complaints procedures (2)
Complaints procedures vary in different organisations but will follow a very similar format. If a service user, a member of staff or a volunteer complains, they have a right to: have their complaint dealt with swiftly and efficiently, have a proper
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Complaints procedure (3)
have a proper and careful investigation of their concerns, know the outcomes of those investigations, have a judicial review of the facts if they think the action or decision is unlawful and receive compensation if they have been harmed.
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The Data Protection Act 1998
Came into force in March 2000. It sets out the rules governing the processing and use of personal information in health and social care settings and many other organisations.
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Information about you...
The Data Protection Act 1998 controls how personal information is used by organisations, businesses or by the government.
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Data must...
Not be passed to countries without data protection laws. Be accurate and up to date. Be collected and used honestly and fairly. Be used only for the reasons it has been given. Be sufficient to meet the needs of the organisation. Not be passed onto
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Data must... (2)
other organisations without permission. Not be kept longer than is necessary. Be kept safe and secure.
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Data that an employer in health and social care can keep about their employees...
Name, Address, Date of birth, Gender, Emergency contact details, Education and details, Employment history and employment experience, National insurance number and tax code, Details of any known disability.
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Recording and storage of data
The act covers the policies, procedures and systems for: Storing information-confidential information should be stored in locking filing cabinets, in a locked room. Information held electronically should be protected by a secure password.
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Recording and storage of data (2)
Accessing information- members of staff in the organisation who are allowed access to this information should be clearly identified. Staff should never have access to personal information that they do not need to know.
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Recording and storage of data (3)
Sharing information- Information should only be shared with other professionals who have a need and a right to know it.
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Legal and workplace requirements
The principles and requirements of the Data Protection Act (1998) and the requirement for confidentiality are within the policies and procedures of all health and social care settings.
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Legal and workplace requirements (2)
All employees and volunteers in organisations have a responsibility to ensure that the confidentiality of service users' information is protected. They also have a duty to actively promote respect for confidentiality throughout the setting.
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Confidentiality
In health and social care settings means restricting access to information about a service user to individuals who are involved in their care, unless permission to disclose the information is given by the service user.
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How is confidentiality ensured?
By applying the requirements of the Data protection Act 1998. By adhering to legal and workplace requirements specified by codes of practice in health and social care settings. By securely recording, storing and retrieving medical and personal info.
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How is confidentiality ensured? (2)
By maintaining confidentiality to safeguard service users. By following appropriate procedures where disclosure is legally required. By respecting the rights of service users where they request non-disclosure of their persona information.
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Accountability to professional organisations
The standards of professional practice expected of professionals working in health and care settings are regulated and monitored by a range of professional bodies.
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Examples of professional bodies in England
The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). The Royal College of Nursing (RCN). The Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC). The General Medical Council (GMC).
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Examples of professional bodies in Wales (in addition to those in England)
Care Council for Wales (social care)
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Examples of professional bodies in Northern Ireland (in addition to those in England)
The Northern Ireland Social Care Council (NISCC)
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Regulation
Is a law which sets out the standard of professional conduct required of people who work in health and social care settings.
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Regulation of workers
People who work in health and social care settings have to follow the regulations set out by the professional bodies which regulate services in their sector.
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Regulation of workers... (2)
This means that workers must: Follow codes of professional conduct. Be familiar with and able to apply current codes of practice. Ensure that revalidation procedures are followed. Follow procedures for raising concerns
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Codes of professional conduct
Professional organisations publish codes of practice for members which must be followed. If a member is accused of failing to meet the standards set, this will be investigated and in extreme conditions the member can be removed from the profession.
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Codes of professional conduct (2)
The professional organisations' regulations outline the formal procedures that will be used following a compliant or concern about the qualifications or professional practice of its members.
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Revalidation procedures
Each of the professional bodies requires its members to complete regular CPD in order to remain on the register.
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Revalidation procedures (2)
This may include for example: Training on the use of new procedures or new treatments. Training on the use of new equipment. Providing evidence that a registered person reviews and learns from their own practice.
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Safeguarding regulations
Protect service users from harm, abuse and neglect and promote their health and wellbeing. Safeguarding and prevention of harm takes place in the context of person-centered support and personalised care, with individuals empowered to make choices.
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Examples of safeguarding
In hospital, make sure all equipment is sterile. In a residential care setting use, hoists to help residents out of bed. At a nursery ensure play areas are safe.
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Safeguarding children
Health and social care workers should: Protect children from maltreatment. Follow their organisations safeguarding policies for protecting children and the actions to take if a child discloses abuse. Prevent impairment of children's health.
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Safeguarding children (2)
Ensure children grow up in circumstances that are consistent with the provision of safe and effective care. Take action to enable children to have the best outcomes.
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Local safeguarding children board
The Children Act 2004 requires every local authority to have a local Safeguarding Children Board.
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The job of the LSCB is to...
Make sure everyone understands how important it is to keep children safe. Make sure that all the agencies that are part of the LSCB are doing the best job. Report to the Department of Heath. Look into cases where children are badly hurt or have died.
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The job of the LSCB is to... (2)
Keep a check on information about child deaths. Give advice to all agencies. Listen to children's views and ideas. Hold discussions to find out what people think about children's issues.
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Safeguarding adults
The Care Act 2014 introduced new safeguarding duties for local authorities where they provide care for adults. These include: Mka
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Safeguarding adults (2)
These include: Making enquiries where there is a safeguarding concern. Hosting safeguarding adults boards. Carrying out safeguarding adult reviews. Arranging for the provision of independent advocates.
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Why is partnership important?
It improves the lives of vulnerable adults and children. It means service users dont have to give the same information to different health and social care workers. It improves information sharing between professionals. It improves the efficiency of
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Why is partnership important? (2)
It improves the efficiency of the care system as whole. It coordinates the way in which care is provided.It helps the service user feel that they are being treated as a whole person. It improves the planning and commissioning of care.
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Difficulties of partnership
Failure to communicate information between services. Lack of coordination of health and social care services. Delayed discharges from hospital. Health and social care providers with different IT systems that cannot communicate with each other.
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Partnership with families
Working in partnership in health and social care may include working with a service user's informal carers, friends and family to plan, aid decision-making and enable support with other service providers.
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Partnership with families (2)
It is important to be willing to work with different people, both professionals and non-professionals, showing respect for all expertise and opinions, and accepting help when you need it.
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Holistic approaches
A holistic approach takes account of a person's wider needs (PIES) and seeks to meet these needs to promote health and wellbeing.
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Holistic approaches (2)
The work of a multi disciplinary team ensures that a holistic approach is taken to planning and implementing a care programme. It means health and care professionals must not only provide their specialist support but also their wider needs.
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Advantages of holistic approach
Care is more personalised. Other issues which contribute to the individual's ill health may be identified and addressed. Being viewed as a whole person and not a medical problem.
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Disadvantages of holistic approaches
Most people only want their particular illness or symptom treated. Generally doctors do not look for other issues using diagnosis. Health and social care workers are not employed or skilled to manage all aspects of an individuals needs.
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Advocacy
Service users, their carers and other advocates should be involved in decision-making and planning support with service providers, working in partnership.
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Advocacy allows people to...
Express their views and concerns, so that they are taken seriously. Access information and services. Defend and promote their rights and responsibilities. Explore choices and options.
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External inspection by relevant agencies
All health, care and early years settings in the UK are regularly inspected by independent, government-financed agencies.
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Who inspects England for their health and care provision?
The Care Quality Commission (CQC)
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Who inspects Northern Ireland for their health and care provision?
By Regulation and Quality and improvement Authority (RQIA)
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Who inspects Wales for their health and care provision?
By Care and Social Services Inspectorate Wales (CSSIW) and health by Healthcare Inspectorate Wales (HCIW)
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Who inspects Scotland for their health and care provision?
On 1st April 2011 the work of the Care Commissioner passed a new body, the Care Inspectorate; regulation of independent healthcare has passed to Healthcare Improvement Scotland.
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Early years and education services are inspected by...
Ofsted in England. The Education and Training Inspectorate (ETI) in Northern Ireland. Her Majesty's Inspectorate for Education and Training in Wales. Education Scotland in Scotland.
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Whistle blowing
Is when a member of staff is aware that the quality of care at their workplace is dangerously poor and reports this to bring about change. They may inform the press or another usually powerful organisation outside the setting in which they work.
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Whistle blowing (2)
Whistle blowers may be employees at any level and working in any part of the organisation.
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Whistle blowing (3)
Whistle blowing can take place in both social care and health settings. Whistle blowing helps to maintain best practice.
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When Whistle blowing policies are not followed...
Bad practice could continue, harming individuals. There will be more complaints from service users. Staff may leave or perform less well. The service provider may receive negative reports.
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Monitoring care internally
The professional standards of workers in health and social care settings are monitored both internally and externally. Internal monitoring is a key part of line management, where staff have responsibility for other colleagues.
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Internal monitor roles
Lead nurses or senior nurses are in charge of a group of wards that can deal with a problem if the ward staff are unable to do so. Doctors are medical consultants who oversee diagnosis, investigations and treatments.
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Internal monitor roles (2)
Matrons are in charge of a group of wards and take responsibility for ensuring excellent patient experience and safety. The ward sister manages the whole ward. Nurse specialists offer expert and specialist advice on a range of treatments.
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Monitoring care externally
Organisations that are external to care settings use codes of practice and regulations to govern how health and social care workers carry out their roles.
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Inspections
External bodies monitor services, including through inspections. These cover: analysis of internal data and trends. Investigation of complaints.Observation of service delivery. Collection of service user feedback. Interviews with staff.
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Criminal investigations
In extreme circumstances such as cases of sexual, physical, financial or emotional abuse or in other circumstances in which it is suspected that criminal law has been broken, the police may investigate. There have been high-profile cases where care
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Criminal investigations (2)
There have been high-profile cases where care staff have been found guilty and imprisoned following criminal investigations.
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Criminal investigations in care settings...
Are pursued where sexual, physical, financial or emotional abuse is suspected. Have to take account of safeguarding. Follow referrals to the police from care providers, CCGs and specialised care settings such as prisons. Follow referrals from indi
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Criminal investigations in care settings ... (2)
Follow referrals from individuals who suspect that a crime has been committed. May lead to the suspension or dismissal of care workers following an investigation. .
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The public sector
The public sector organisations that provide health and social care services are financed and directly managed by the government.
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Primary healthcare
Is provided by GPs, dentists, opticians and pharmacists. Primary health care services are normally accessed directly by the service user when needed.
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Secondary health care
Includes most hospital services, mental health services and many of the community health services. These are normally accessed via the GP who makes an appropriate referral to a consultant or other healthcare specialist.
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Tertiary health care
Provides specialist and normally complex services. For example specialist spinal injury units or hospice care.
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Health public bodies
NHS Foundation Trusts and GP services are public sector organisations which provide NHS services for adults and children.
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Social care public bodies
Local authorities are public sector organisations which provide social care services for adults and children. These include: Help in the home. Support for carers. Financial support and equipment to enhance independence.
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Commissioning
Commissioning of services means planning services specification, agreeing service procurement and monitoring delivery.
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Primary care
Primary health care provides the first point of contact such as a GP who gives access to day to day services for patients and refers them to relevant specialists where needed.
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What do local authorities do?
They commission organisations to provide social care services. Commissioned organisations can be in the public, private or voluntary sector.
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NHS Foundation Trusts
Health services, largely by financed by government that manage the delivery of hospital services.
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NHS Foundation Trusts (2)
Were established in 2004. They are independent organisations. Are managed by a board of governors which may include patients, staff, members of the public and members of partner organisations.
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What is the aim of NHS Foundation Trusts?
Aim is to move decision-making from a centralised NHS to local communities in order to respond to local needs and wishes.Trusts that have not achieved foundation status are still managed centrally.
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Mental health foundation trusts
Are managed by the community, including people who use the mental health services. Patients, their families and friends, local organisations and local residents can become members of the foundation.
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Services provided by Mental Health Foundation Trusts...
Include provision of psychological therapies, the support of psychiatric nurses and specialist support for people with severe mental health problems.
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Community Health Foundation Trusts
Work with GPs and local authority social services departments to provide health and care support. The services provided by the trust may include: adult and community nursing services, health visiting and school nursing.
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Community Health Foundation Trusts (2)
Physiotherapy and occupational therapy and speech therapy services, palliative/end of life care, walk in/urgent care centres and specialist services.
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Aim of the Community Health Foundation Trust
Is to provide care for service users that will enable them to live as independently as possible in the community, rather than in settings such as hospitals or residential care.
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Adult social care
Adult social care provision in for people over the age of 18 who have disabilities, mental health problems or who are otherwise frail, due to age or other circumstances and are unable to support themselves.
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Adult social care services (2)
Are the responsibility of local authority social service departments. The support provided can take in many forms, including: care in the service user's own home, day centres to provide care, sheltered housing schemes.
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Card 2

Front

Doctors (2)

Back

Diagnose, treat, monitor and prevent illness. Provide prescriptions for treatment and arrange preventative care, such as flu immunisation. Refer patients to other health professionals such as specialist doctors and therapists.

Card 3

Front

Specialist doctors

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Specialist doctors (2)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Nurses

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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