- Created by: Ali682
- Created on: 13-02-19 19:12
The public sector
The public sector organisations that provide health and social care services are financed and directly managed by the government.
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Is provided by GPs, dentists, opticians and pharmacists. Primary health care services are normally accessed directly by the service user when needed.
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Secondary health care
Includes most hospital services, mental health services and many of the community health services. These are normally accessed via the GP who makes an appropriate referral to a consultant or other healthcare specialist.
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Tertiary health care
Provides specialist and normally complex services. For example specialist spinal injury units or hospice care.
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Health public bodies
NHS Foundation Trusts and GP services are public sector organisations which provide NHS services for adults and children.
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Social care public bodies
Local authorities are public sector organisations which provide social care services for adults and children. These include: Help in the home. Support for carers. Financial support and equipment to enhance independence.
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Commissioning of services means planning services specification, agreeing service procurement and monitoring delivery.
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Primary health care provides the first point of contact such as a GP who gives access to day to day services for patients and refers them to relevant specialists where needed.
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What do local authorities do?
They commission organisations to provide social care services. Commissioned organisations can be in the public, private or voluntary sector.
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NHS Foundation Trusts
Health services, largely by financed by government that manage the delivery of hospital services.
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NHS Foundation Trusts (2)
Were established in 2004. They are independent organisations. Are managed by a board of governors which may include patients, staff, members of the public and members of partner organisations.
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What is the aim of NHS Foundation Trusts?
Aim is to move decision-making from a centralised NHS to local communities in order to respond to local needs and wishes.Trusts that have not achieved foundation status are still managed centrally.
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Mental health foundation trusts
Are managed by the community, including people who use the mental health services. Patients, their families and friends, local organisations and local residents can become members of the foundation.
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Services provided by Mental Health Foundation Trusts...
Include provision of psychological therapies, the support of psychiatric nurses and specialist support for people with severe mental health problems.
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Community Health Foundation Trusts
Work with GPs and local authority social services departments to provide health and care support. The services provided by the trust may include: adult and community nursing services, health visiting and school nursing.
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Community Health Foundation Trusts (2)
Physiotherapy and occupational therapy and speech therapy services, palliative/end of life care, walk in/urgent care centres and specialist services.
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Aim of the Community Health Foundation Trust
Is to provide care for service users that will enable them to live as independently as possible in the community, rather than in settings such as hospitals or residential care.
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Adult social care
Adult social care provision in for people over the age of 18 who have disabilities, mental health problems or who are otherwise frail, due to age or other circumstances and are unable to support themselves.
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Adult social care services (2)
Are the responsibility of local authority social service departments. The support provided can take in many forms, including: care in the service user's own home, day centres to provide care, sheltered housing schemes.
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Are the responsibility of local authorities. Their aim is to support and protect vulnerable children and young people, their families and also young carers.
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Support for children and their families can include...
Services to safeguard children who are at risk from abuse or significant harm, including sexual, physical, emotional harm or neglect. Day care for children under the age of 5 and after school support for older children.
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Support for children and their families can include... (2)
Help for parents and carers with 'parenting skills'. Practical help in the home. Support of a children's centre. Arrangements for fostering and adoption.
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General practitioner practices are often the first point of access to health and care provision. GPs have an extensive knowledge of medical conditions. GPs work in local communities. Their role is to make initial diagnoses and to refer individuals. V
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Voluntary sector organisations are often known as charities. Voluntary organisations vary enormously in their size, history and the services they provide. Voluntary groups often rely heavily on charitable donations for their survival.
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What are the key features of a voluntary organisation?
That they: Are not run for personal profit, usually use volunteers for at least some of their services and are managed independently of central government or local authorities.
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Private sector health and care provision is managed by commercial companies. These are organisations that need to make a profit in order to stay in business.
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Private sector (2)
Private care providers work in all sectors, including the provision of: private schools, nursery and pre-school services, hospitals, domiciliary care services, residential and nursing homes for older people, mental health services.
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Private sector (3)
Private sector companies often provide services for central government and local authorities, including services for the NHS, adult social care and children's services.
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What are private sector companies funded by?
Fees paid directly by service users, payments from health insurance companies, grants and other payments from central and local government for services provided on their behalf.
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The range of settings that provide health and care services
The settings in which health and care services are provided vary enormously. Outpatient services include regular clinics, day surgery and other specialist daytime care. Inpatient services include treatment for individuals.
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A hospital is a healthcare setting where patients receive treatment from specialised staff and equipment. Hospital provide both inpatient and outpatient services. Outpatient services include regular clinics, day surgery and specialist daytime care.
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Inpatient services include treatment for individuals whose condition requires 24 hour specialist care.
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People with specialised health needs are referred to hospitals bu their GPs. Hospitals provide emergency care via Accident and Emergency Departments. People who need health services have a right to choose which hospital they attend.
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What are the different hospital departments?
Geriatric- the frail elderly. Paediatric-children. Oncology-people with cancer. Cardiology-people with heart conditions. Psychiatry-mental ill health. Orthopaedic-people with bone disorders. Radiology-diagnosis and treatment using x-rays.
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Day care centres/units
Are normally provided for specific client groups. In most places there will be day centres for older people, for people with disabilities, people with learning difficulties, people with mental health problems and for people with specific conditions.
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Day care centres/units (2)
Staff in daycare units may provide patients with an assessment of their health needs. Surgery and other medical procedures may be carried out in daycare units. They usually provide services which meet the health needs of older people.
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Hospice care aims to improve the quality of life for people who have an incurable illness. Care may be available from when the diagnosis of a terminal illness is made until the end of the individuals life. Hospice care is holistic.
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What do hospice staff do?
The aim of hospice care is to improve the lives of people who have a terminal illness that cannot be cured. Staff in hospices take care of peoples PIES, aim to control the pain and other symptoms experienced by the patient through palliative care.
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Palliative care is offered to people towards the end of their lives. It is a multidisciplinary approach to specialised medical care for people with serious illnesses.
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Refers to the long-term care of adults and children needing 24-hour care, which cannot be provided adequately or appropriately in their own home. Residential care units are usually specialist units providing care for specific client groups.
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Sometimes called home care is care provided in a client's home, rather than in specialist care setting. The care may be short term.
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Domiciliary services may include....
Making adaptations to the home such as installing grab rails. Providing company and arranging social activities. Arranging transport to and from shop, to a doctors, hospital appointment. Installing security equipment such as emergency alarm,
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Domiciliary services may include.... (2)
an entry phone or key box. Small maintenance jobs such as changing a light bulb, replacing a tap washer or small repairs. The delivery of meals to a service user's home. Help at home with domestic tasks such as housework.
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Occupational health services aim to keep a workforce git and healthy so that they are able to carry out the duties for which they are employed, or to assist employees to regain fitness following an injury or illness. These services are normally
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The workplace (2)
provided by an employer to support the people that they employ. This can include access to nurses based in the workplace or referral to a doctor or other health professionals.
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Health and social care organisations are accessed by those in need through referral systems.
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Is when a person contacts a care provider personally, by letter, email, phone call, making an appointment or attending a care setting or surgery and requesting help. Access to primary healthcare services, such as doctors, dentists and opticians is
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normally through self-referral. Many social care services for children and adults are accessed by self-referral.
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Is when a friend, neighbor or relative contacts a health or care service on another person's behalf. For example, a neighbour may ring the social services department on behalf of a frail elderly person to request care support, or a relative
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Third-part referral (2)
concerned about the general health of a person with Down's syndrome may contact the GP. These referrals are usually to services that are accessible through self-referral.
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Is when a health or care professional contacts another service provider to request support for a service user. For example a GP referring a child with learning difficulties to an educational psychologist.
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Local authorities have a duty to carry out a community care assessment for anyone who appears to be finding it difficult to look after themselves without additional help. The adult social services department is usually responsible for this, and it
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would normally be a social worker to completes such an assessment. It may be that the service user needs reassurance and information about local or national organisations, simple devices that can help the client to live independently, a higher level.
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If a client is supported in their home by family, friends or neighbours, these carers also have a right to a carer's assessment to see whether they need support to carry out their caring activities.
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In order to decide whether a person is entitled to care and support from the local authority a social services department assessor, usually a social worker has to consider whether these needs arise from 1 a physical and/or a mental impairment plus
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Eligibility criteria (2)
2 an inability to achieve at least two of the following daily activities. Prepare and eat food, wash themselves or their clothes, manage their toilet needs, dress appropriately, move around their house, keep their house safe and clean.
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Eligibility criteria (3)
An adult is eligible for support only if they meet both criteria. If a person meets these criteria for support, called national eligibility criteria the local authority has a duty to make sure the identified needs are met.
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Eligibility criteria (4)
However social care is not usually free of charge and people may have to contribute to the cost of their care. The local authority carries out a financial assessment which will take into account the service user's regular income and their savings.
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Eligibility criteria (5)
The financial assessment will decide whether the service user must contribute to the cost of care and if so how much they will contribute. Service users, if they are eligible will normally receive a personal budget sometimes called a direct payment.
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Eligibility criteria (6)
These payments are available to all client groups across the UK including older people, people with physical and learning disabilities and carers.
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Barriers to accessing health and care services
The health and care services available in the UK are many and various and accessing these services can be very confusing for service users, particularly when people are unwell or have complex personal difficulties.
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Barriers to accessing health and care services (2)
These difficulties may lead to service users and their families not receiving the care they need and have a right to.
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Some barriers to accessing services may be.....
Language for example if English is not a service user's first language and there is no interpreter available, or the service user is hearing-impaired and there is no signer available to support communication.
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Some barriers to accessing services may be..... (2)
Inconvenient location of the service particularly if the service user has to rely on help for travel is not always available.
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Some barriers to accessing services may be..... (3)
Financial such as the cost and difficulty in providing care for children or other dependents while a service user attends a care setting or the potential loss of wages.
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Some barriers to accessing services may be..... (4)
Scarce resources, for example long waiting times for hospital appointments or treatment, lack of beds available in hospitals or appropriate residential care settings, restricted opening times or specialist resources not easily available.
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Some barriers to accessing services may be..... (5)
Communication such as service users feeling unable to communicate easily with care providers and other service users because they feel discriminated against or that there is prejudice against them or that there are negative stereotypes.
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Charities and patient groups
Many voluntary organisations or charities represent their service users when they need to contact and liaise with other official agencies. For example MENCAP will represent their service users and support them if they are liaising with other
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Charities and patient groups (2)
organisations such as their local council housing department, social services or other health care professionals. Shelter provides advice, guidance and support for people with housing problems and will represent them when they liaise with council
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Charities and patient groups (3)
officials are applying for housing benefit or negotiating with landlords. These organisations also provide support if service users need to make a complaint. Patient groups in hospitals represent the needs of patients.
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Charities and patient groups (4)
Many charitable groups act as pressure groups and campaign on behalf of the individual members that they represent.For example they may write to the papers, use social media, organise demonstrations and contact Members of Parliament or local council
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Charities and patient groups (5)
to raise awareness of their service users' needs and to request improvements to the services offered. For example the NSPCC campaigns to encourage the government to introduce policies and laws that support the protection of children.
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If a client has a serious communication problem an advocate may speak on their behalf. For example clients may have a learning difficulty, a speech impediment, poor literacy skills, a limited grasp of English or lack confidence.
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In health and care settings, advocates are usually volunteers. They work with individual service users, getting to know them well and building a trusting relationship so that they can accurately represent the needs, wishes and preferences of their
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client to the professional workers and to official organisations when needed. This may be through attending care meetings with the service user or completing forms, writing letters or emails on the client's behalf.
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All care settings must have formal complaints procedures. The settings have a responsibility to ensure that their service users and, where appropriate their families and other informal carers understand how to access and use complaints procedures
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Complaints polices (2)
if they are unhappy with the quality of care provided. The procedures and the outcome of any complaints will be checked whether the setting inspected.
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If a service user complains they have a right to....
Have their complaint dealt with efficiently and in a timely way, have their compliant formally investigated, be told the outcome of their complaint.
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Care organisations are required to have whistleblowing policies. Whistleblowing policies provide protection for staff who tell the press or another organisation outside the setting in which they work that the quality of care at their workplace is
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Whistleblowing policies (2)
dangerously poor. For example if they report the situation to the media, the police or to a professional body in order to heighten awareness of the problem and bring about the change.
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Regulation and inspection process
When a service provider registers with an external regulatory organisation, it is inspected to ensure that it meets the required standards in resourcing and staffing for high-quality care.
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Regulation and inspection
Inspectors carry out inspections, using experts to help reach judgements on quality. They need to know that the services are safe, caring, effective and well-led.
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How inspectors carry out inspections
1. Identify the scope and purpose of the inspection. 2. Gather views of service users. 3. Gather information from staff. 4. Observe service delivery. 5. Review records. 6. Look at documents and policies. 7. Feedback at a meeting with the inspection
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How inspectors carry out inspections (2)
team and senior staff. 8. Publish findings. 9. Take action to improve services where needed.
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After the inspection
The service provider is graded-this may reflect a range from outstanding or fully met to inadequate to not met. Requirements or warning notices ma be given, setting out improvements required and a timescale. Organisations and individuals may be
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After the inspection (2)
asked to implement policy and/or practice changes. In some instances a provider might be required to limit the range of services or to face criminal prosecution.
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Actions in response to inspection.....
Providers may need to... Write and implement an improvement action plan, implement enhanced staff training, improve partnership working, ensure changes to working practices.
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Roles of organisations that regulate and inspect health and social care services
There are independent organisations with responsibility for the inspection and regulation of health and care services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
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The Care Quality Commission (CQC) (England)
The CQC is a independent regulator of health and social care in England. It aims to ensure that health and social care services are of a high quality and that they are delivered safely, effectively and compassionately.
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The Care Quality Commission (CQC) (England) (2)
The CQC monitors and inspects.... NHS Trusts hospitals and independent hospitals, GP provision, clinics. dentists, residential care home, domiciliary care.
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The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (England)
Following the Health and Social Care Act (2012) the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) was renamed as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. This name change reflects its new responsibilities for social care
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The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (England) (2)
NICE is responsible for providing guidance on current best practice in health and social care. It publishes guidance and advice that aims to control and improve health and social care provision. For example NICE provides, guidance on the most
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The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (England) (3)
appropriate treatments for people with specific conditions and diseases such as cancer or diabetes, evaluation of whether procedures are sufficiently safe and effective to be used within the health and care services.
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The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (England) (4)
NICE recommendations are for the use of NHS practitioners, local authorities, charities and any organisations financed by the government who provide health and social care services. As part of NICE's new responsibilities for social care it aims to
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The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (England) (5)
provide a smoother transition for service users moving from health services to social care services, and from children's services to adult social services. NICE has jurisdiction in England and Wales and it recommendations are national.
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Public Health England (PHE)
PHE is an executive agency sponsored by the Department of Health that was set up on 1 April 2013 following the implementation of the Health and Social Care Act (2012). It aims to protect and improve the public health, wellbeing of people in England.
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Public Health England (PHE) (2)
The focus of all public health organisations is on the protection and improvement of the health of a community or population, in contrast to the individual support of a service user.
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Public Health England (PHE) (3)
Some measures that PHE uses to carry out it responsibilities are through: setting up health promotion programmes to improve the nation's health, research projects to improve our knowledge of public health issues.
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The Office for Standards in Education, Children services and Skills (Ofsted) regulates and inspects services that educate children, young people and adults or care for children through the inspection of state funded schools, adult education providers
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Ofsted also regulates and inspects care provision for children and young people, for example inspecting, nurseries, pre-schools and child minders, fostering and adoption agencies, settings providing residential care for children.
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Inspectors make a judgement about the overall effectiveness of the provider based on their judgement relating to the effectiveness of leadership and management, quality of teaching, learning and assessment, personal development.
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In Wales, health services and social care services are inspected separately. The Care and Social Services Inspectorate Wales (CSSIW) is responsible for monitoring the quality of care and social service provision.
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The Care and Social Services Inspectorate Wales (CSSIW)
The CSSIW is responsible for the regulation and inspection of care provision, which includes: residential care homes and nursing homes for adults, domiciliary or home care provision, nurses' agencies, children's homes, child minders and day care
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The Care and Social Services Inspectorate Wales (CSSIW) (2)
Fostering and adoption agencies, boarding schools, further education colleges that accommodate learners under 18.
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The Care and Social Services Inspectorate Wales (CSSIW) (3)
CSSIW publishes reports on the outcomes of each of its inspections. The CSSIW aims to provide independent assurance about the quality and availability of social care , safeguard adults and children, making sure that their rights are protected.
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Healthcare Inspectorate Wales (HIW)
The HIW inspects all healthcare provision provided by the NHS and by other independent organisations, including private or charitable organisations. Its responsibilities are wide ranging and include hospitals and clinics,
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Healthcare Inspectorate Wales (HIW) (2)
Mental health and substance misuse services, nursing agencies and midwifery provision, youth offending teams and deaths in prison, and homicide investigations.
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Healthcare Inspectorate Wales (HIW) (3)
HIW aims to: contribute to improving the safety and quality of healthcare services in Wales, improve citizens' experiences of healthcare in Wales, strengthen the voice of patients and the public in the way health services are reviewed.
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Her Majesty's Inspector of Education and Training in Wales (ESTYN)
ESTYN is the organisation responsible for the inspection of education and training in Wales. Unlike Ofsted their work is specifically linked to education and training. The inspection of children's social services is the responsibility of CSSIW.
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Her Majesty's Inspector of Education and Training in Wales (ESTYN) (2)
ESTYN's responsibilities include the inspection of: schools, further education colleges, work-based learning providers, adult and community learning provision, initial teacher education and training.
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The Regulation and Quality Improvement Authority (RQIA)
In Northern Ireland, the RQIA has similar responsibilities to the Care Quality Commission in England. That is it is responsible for the regulation of both care and health services. It inspects services provided by both statutory and independent
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The Regulation and Quality Improvement Authority (RQIA) (2)
organisations including: children's homes, day care settings for older people, boarding schools, residential family centres, nursing agencies.
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Public Health Agency for Northern Ireland (PHA Northern Ireland)
The PHA Northern Ireland was established in 2009 and brought together a number of different public health organisations. Its overall responsibility is to improve the health and social wellbeing of all people living in Northern Ireland.
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Public Health Agency for Northern Ireland (PHA Northern Ireland) (2)
The PHA manages this by: developing effective health protection strategies, developing policy to improve the health and wellbeing of the population, conducting research and development activities to identify the causes of poor health.
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Public Health Agency for Northern Ireland (PHA Northern Ireland) (3)
In 2015, PHA Northern Ireland ran a campaign to urge people to take steps to reduce their likelihood of having a stroke as part of World Stroke Day in October and another related to Global Handwashing Day.
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The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (NI)
NICE does not have direct responsibility for the control and improvement of health and social care services in Northern Ireland, as it does in England and Wales. However NICE has a direct link with the Northern Ireland Department of Health.
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Education and Training Inspectorate (ETI)
The ETI are responsible for the inspection and improvement of educational services in Northern Ireland, which includes educational services provided in, early years, primary and secondary schools, further education colleges, youth work.
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Education and Training Inspectorate (ETI) (2)
When reporting on the quality of provision in schools and colleges the ETI uses the following descriptors to report on the quality of provision: achievements and standards, provision for learning, leadership and management.
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How regulations and inspections are carried out...
The CQC in England, the CSSIW and the HIW and the RQIA in Northern Ireland all require service providers to register with them before offering care services. When a service provider applies for registration there are checks to ensure that it
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How regulations and inspections are carried out... (2)
meets the necessary standards of safety, and has the resources to ensure high standards of care. Once registered the services are continually monitored. This includes regular inspection.
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How regulations and inspections are carried out... (3)
Inspectors are drawn from a range of backgrounds, including experienced health and care professionals, members of other related professionals and also care users and their informal carers. The inspection teams make judgments supported by robust
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How regulations and inspections are carried out... (4)
evidence, on the quality of provision such as whether the care provision is safe, caring, effective in carrying out its services, well-managed and well-led.
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How regulations and inspections are carried out... (5)
Each of the national regulators publishes National Minimum Standards (NMS) of provision in these areas for the types of settings that they impact. The main sources of evidence used to support their judgments are: feedback from service users.
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How organisations and individuals respond to regulation and inspection
Inspection can be a stressful experience, Weaknesses in provision may be identified that managers were unaware of being areas of concern. Managers and staff may feel vulnerable and on occasion, angry. They may feel that they cannot make the
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How organisations and individuals respond to regulation and inspection (2)
improvements needed. To support care providers, the regulators publish clear guidance that outlines what they expect to see. Following an inspection the regulator publishes a report. The CQC publishes the outcomes of each inspection and the health
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How organisations and individuals respond to regulation and inspection (3)
and care provision is graded accordingly to the quality of care provided. In Northern Ireland the RQIA assess whether the National Minimum Standards are fully met, partially met or not met.
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Changes in working practice required by inspection
Following an inspection where the practice does not meet the required standards, the regulator can enforce change, which may include: requiring or recommending improvements to the provider's policy, issuing a requirement notice.
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The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC)
The NMC is a statutory authority set up by parliament in 2002. It is responsible for regulating the standard of professional practice of all nurses and midwives in the United Kingdom wherever they are working.
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The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2)
The NMC exists to protect the public and it sets high standards for: initial education and training of nurses and midwives, continuing professional development, standards of professional practice, standards of personal conduct.
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The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (3)
The NMC sets the standards and formal code of practice required of all nurses and midwives. Nurses and midwives have to provide evidence of continuing learning and training in order to remain on the register.
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The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (4)
All practicing nurses and midwives are required to register with the NMC who investigate any allegations that their members are not meeting the standards set.
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The Royal College of Nursing (RCN)
The RCN although not an inspectorate or regulator of nursing practice is the world's largest union and professional body representing the nursing profession. It represents nurses in the public, private and voluntary sectors.
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The Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC)
The HCPC was set up in 2012 under the Health and Social Care Act (2012) The HCPC promotes good practice and also exists to protect the public, throughout the UK from poor standards of care. The HCPC regulates a wide range of health and care related
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The Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) (2)
professionals, 16 different professions. Members of these professions must register with the HCPC.
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The General Medical Council (GMC)
The GMC is an independent organisation for the registration and regulation of doctors. The GMC: oversees UK medical education and training, decides which doctors are qualified to work in this country, sets the standards that doctors must meet.
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The General Medical Council (GMC) (2)
When a serious concern is raised about a doctor's behaviour or professional practice the GMC investigates. If the concern is upheld, the GMC may restrict the doctor's right to practice. The doctor may be required to work under supervision.
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Care Council for Wales (CCW)
The CCW was set up under the Care Standards Act (2000)with the aim of registering and regulating the social care workforce in Wales. The CCW confirms and registers staff working in children's or adult social care and early years in Wales.
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Care Council for Wales (CCW) (2)
The CCW checks that practitioners: have the necessary qualifications, are physically and mentally fit to practice and work in this area, are of good character, comply with the CCW code of practice.
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The Northern Ireland Social Care (NISCC)
The Northern Ireland Social Care Council was set up under the Health and Personal Social Services Act (2011). This was during the time that the CCW in Wales and the General Social Care Council in England were established.
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The Northern Ireland Social Care (NISCC) (2)
The overall aim of the NISCC is to protect the public and all service users by regulating the registration and practice of social work and the social care workforce.
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The Northern Ireland Social Care (NISCC) (3)
The NISCC has responsibility for: monitoring and regulating the social care workforce in Northern Ireland. Setting standards for the training and professional practice of members of the care workforce. Promoting professional development of the place.
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How services are improved by regulation...
The overall purpose of regulation is to protect the public by setting standards of education, training, professional conduct and professional practice to ensure high standards are maintained throughout a health and care professional's career.
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How services are improved by regulation... (2)
Health and care work is a fast changing area with constant new developments that require new approaches to work. This can be stressful for care workers and requires significant continuing professional development.
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How services are improved by regulation... (3)
If an allegation is made that a practitioner is not meeting the standards of education, skill or professional conduct expected, their regulator will investigate that complaint. The regulators have the power to suspend their members, require them to
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How services are improved by regulation... (4)
take additional training, restrict the types of work that they can do, or in extreme circumstances, remove them from the professional register.
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Implementing the organisations codes of practice...
The Health and Social Care Act (2008) and the linked regulations of 2014 require that registered providers of care services must ensure that they have sufficient numbers of appropriately qualified staff to meet the needs of their service users.
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Implementing the organisations codes of practice... (2)
They must also provide or support training and professional development to ensure that their staff can carry out their caring role. In a social care setting, new staff are required to complete an induction programme and to meet the requirements of
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Implementing the organisations codes of practice... (3)
the Common Induction Standards (2010) within 12 weeks of commencing their new job. This requires the manager to ensure that all new employees understand how to implement the codes of practice in their workplace.
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Meeting National Occupational Standards
National Occupational Standards (NOS) describe best practice. They are the standards of professional practice that should be met in the workplace. The NOS for people working in the health and social care sector are applicable throughout the UK and
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Meeting National Occupational Standards (2)
were updated in 2012. The NOS underpin the codes of practice in care settings and the curriculum for the training of practitioners and cover the standards that are also included in the codes of practice for professional bodies.
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Undertaking continuing professional development
In order for health and care practitioners to maintain the high standards required in the sector, they need to continually update their skills. This will ensure that they are following the best practice and most up-to-date procedures.
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Internal and external complaints
All care organisations are required by their regulators, which include the professional organisations and the inspection agencies, to have formal procedures to address complaints. Where allegations of poor practice are made against staff this will
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Internal and external complaints (2)
normally initially be addressed through the organisation's internal disciplinary systems. However in more serious instances the regulatory body may be involved. In extreme circumstances the police may also deal with the complaints.
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Membership of trade unions/professional associations
Many practitioners will be members of trade unions or professional associations which support them if they are accused of professional misconduct or are in conflict in other ways with their employer.
154 of 157
Following protocols of regulatory bodies
Protocols are accepted codes of practice and behaviour required by professionals by their regulatory bodies. The regulatory bodies also provide protection for employees by ensuring that the standards expected of them are clear and transparent.
155 of 157
Whistleblowing procedures can be a from of protection for all staff. If the quality of care in an organisation is poor and this is going unchecked whistleblowing will protect not only the service user but also members of staff and the provision.
156 of 157
Poor practice damages the reputation of the sector. It may lead to investigations by professional organisations, the inspectorate and in extreme cases by the police.
157 of 157
Other cards in this set
Is provided by GPs, dentists, opticians and pharmacists. Primary health care services are normally accessed directly by the service user when needed.
Secondary health care
Tertiary health care
Health public bodies