Unit 1 Human Lifespan Development Learning Outcome B


What is the difference between nature and nurture?
Nature refers to biological characteristics that are genetically inherited (e.g. eye colour, hair colour and blood type). Nurture refers to all the influences on us as we grow and develop (e.g. weight, accent)
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Theorists that support the 'nature' debate
John Bowlby- the attachment theory explains the bond between the child and the primary caregiver.

Noam Chomsky - his Language Acquisition Device is our ability to learn a language due to our biological programme.
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Arnold Gesell's Maturation Theory (Nature)
> he believed that development is genetically determined from birth - a biological process
> he observed the behaviour of many children which he determined averages of 'norms' which he called it maturation (the process of maturing)
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Advantages in Gesell's theory
- the milestones he identified are still existed today.
- he used advanced methodology in observing different behaviours of children to understand their development.
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Disadvantages in Gesell's theory (criticisms)
- More recent research has suggested that Gesell’s milestones are incorrect = babies can follow moving objects at an earlier age than Gesell's thought.
- Gesell only used white, middle class parents and their children in his sample.
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Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory
- his theory emphasises the importance of observing, modelling, and imitating the behaviours, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others.
- Social learning considers how both environmental and cognitive factors interact to influence human learning and
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Bandura's Social Learning Theory (part 2)
- he created an experiment called the "Bobo Doll experiment" to observe aggression. This experiment demonstrated that children are able to learn through the observation of an adult's behaviour.
- he believed that the people around the child will respond
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Theorists that support the 'nurture' debate
> Gesell's Maturation Theory
> Noam Chomsky's model of Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
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What are the four principles of Social Learning Theory?
> Attention - the learning of the child will take place when the child focuses on their attention on the person who 'models' the behaviour.
> Retention - We learn by retaining information in our memory. We recall that information when we are required to.
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Four principles of social learning theory
(part 2)
> Reproduction - We reproduce previously learned information (behaviour, skills, knowledge) when required. What has been learned is reproduced or imitated.
> Motivation - The rewards and punishment that follow a behaviour will be considered by the obser
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What is positive reinforcement?
The process of encouraging or establishing a pattern of behaviour by offering reward when the behaviour is exhibited.

This behaviour is repeated because of personal satisfaction and rewards.
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What is negative reinforcement?
Negative reinforcement involves encouraging specific behaviours by removing or avoiding negative consequences such as being told off or lack of satisfaction.

It's different than punishment, which aims to discourage a specific behaviour.
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What is vicarious reinforcement?
It involves learning through observation of the consequences of actions for other people.
When a learner observes someone they identify with and the role model receives reinforcement.
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What is Genetic predisposition?
Genetic predisposition refers to an increased likelihood of developing a disease as a result of an individual’s genetic makeup. This is the outcome of specific genetic variations that are usually inherited from a parent.
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What does diathesis mean? (Nurture)
Diathesis is a person’s predisposition or vulnerability to a medical condition, which can be a psychological or physical disorder due to genetic or biological factors.
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What is stress? (Nature)
This involves traumatic and psychological events that an individual experiences in their lives. (eg. relationship breakdown, abuse, death of loved one)
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Explain the stress-diathesis model.
- helps to understand why some individuals suffer from mental illness while others don't.
- the theory suggests that mental illnesses will occur due to stressful conditions in the environment and can affect the biological and psychological characteristic
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stress-diathesis model (part 2)
- the model suggests that high levels of stress and trauma can trigger the onset of psychological disorder for those who have predispositions.
- the theory suggest that some people are born with biological or genetic predispositions to mental illnesses.
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What is genetic predisposition?
A genetic predisposition is an increased likelihood of developing a particular disease based on a person's genetic makeup.

It can be triggered by their environment (nature) and their life experiences (nurture).
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Cystic Fibrosis
- it's an inherited condition that causes thick and sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive system.
- can cause symptoms including wheezing/shortness of breath, frequent chest infections, diabetes and weak bones(also known as osteoporosis)
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Brittle Bone Disease
- a genetic disorder that causes weakened bones to break easily.
- causes by a defect or flaw in the gene that causes type 1 collagen, a protein used to create bone.
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Phenylketonuria (PKU)
- An inherited disorder that causes a build-up of phenylalanine (an amino acid) in the blood.
- This can cause mental retardation, behavioural and movement problems, seizures, delayed development and intellectual disabilities.
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Huntington's Disease
- Huntington's disease is a condition that stops parts of the brain working properly over time.
- Huntington's disease is caused by a faulty gene that results in parts of the brain becoming gradually damaged over time.
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symptoms of Huntington's disease.
- difficulty concentrating & memory lapses
- depression
- stumbling & clumsiness
- involuntary jerking or fidgety movements of the limbs & body
- mood swings & personality changes
- problems swallowing, speaking & breathing
- difficulty moving
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Duchenne Muscular dystrophy
- It's a genetic condition that affects the muscles, leading to muscle wasting that gets worse over time.
- it causes by changes (mutations) in the genes responsible for the structure and functioning of a person's muscles.
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Down's Syndrome
- it's a condition which an individual is born with an extra copy of chromosome 21.
- this causes characteristic facial features, growth delays and intellectual disabilities.
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Klinefelter's Syndrome
- this is when boys and men are born with an extra X chromosome.
- caused by an additional X chromosome, causing problems in puberty.
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Colour Blindness
- It’s a genetic condition caused by a difference in how 1 or more light- sensitive cells found in the retina of the eye, unable to see colours in a normal way.
- This is known as "red-green" colour vision deficiency.
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Exam question: Identify three examples of conditions that are a result in genetic predisposition?
- Cystic Fibrosis
- Huntington's Disease
- Brittle Bone Disease
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What are the effects on poor lifestyle choices during pregnancy?
- low birth weight
- premature birth
- long-term health problems
- learning disabilities
- developmental delays
- congenital defects
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- exercise makes us healthy and maintains weight, especially with our mobility and heart.
- also important for our wellbeing, releases endorphins to reduce the risks in mental health problems
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Drug use
- using excessive drugs or tobacco can lead to respiratory problems and lung cancers
- ie. cocaine can boosts you energy sometimes but it's more risky to mental and emotional health problems especially with the brain.
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Drug use part 2
- Cannabis can make you relax and calm sometimes but it increases more brain problems and mental health (e.g. schizophrenia)
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Alcohol use
- excessive alcohol or binge drinking can increase the risks of heart diseases, lung cancers, liver and bowel cancer.
- too much alcohol also affects their behaviour and their physical and mental health problems.
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Foetal Alcohol Syndrome
- caused by the exposure to alcohol in the womb.
- This occurs in the mother's blood passes to her baby through the placenta.
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symptoms of foetal alcohol syndrome
- small head circumference
- neurological problems
- abnormal growth
- learning difficulties (thinking, solving problems, timekeeping, memory, attention)
- facial abnormalities
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Exam question: Identify three possible effects on foetal alcohol syndrome.
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Tobacco and Smoke
- Smoking increases your risk of developing more than 50 serious health conditions.
- the most biggest causes of death and illnesses.
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symptoms in smoking (heart)
- cardiovascular diseases
- heart attacks
- strokes
- peripheral vascular disease (damaged blood vessels)
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symptoms in smoking (lungs and respiratory systems)
- pneumonia
- chronic bronchitis (long term inflammation in the airways)
- emphysema (damage to the air sacs in the lungs)
- asthma
- common colds
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Maternal infections during pregnancy

- also known as the German measles
- a viral infection that causes red rashes on the body.
- The infection can spread from person to person through contact with droplets from an infected person’s sneeze or cough.
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symptoms of rubella?
> swollen and pink-coloured eyes
> Headache
> Swollen glands behind the ears and on the neck
> Stuffy, runny nose
> Coughs
> Sore joints (more common in young women)
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
> CMV is related to the herpes virus that causes cold sores and chickenpox.
> can cause serious health problems in some babies who get the virus before birth, and in people who have a weakened immune system.
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symptoms of CMV?
> high temperature
> aching muscles
> tiredness
> skin rash
> feeling sick
> sore throat
> swollen glands
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Theorists that support the 'nature' debate


John Bowlby- the attachment theory explains the bond between the child and the primary caregiver.

Noam Chomsky - his Language Acquisition Device is our ability to learn a language due to our biological programme.

Card 3


Arnold Gesell's Maturation Theory (Nature)


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Advantages in Gesell's theory


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Disadvantages in Gesell's theory (criticisms)


Preview of the front of card 5
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