Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Name the 8 Life stages and they ages of each stage... 

  • 1- Contraception 
  • 2- Infancy (0-2)
  • Early Childhood (3-8)
  • Adolesence (9-18)
  • Early Adulthood (19-45)
  • Middle Adulthood (45-65)
  • Later Adulthood (65 +)
  • Death 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

State the difference between Growth and Development...

  • Growth includes Heiaght, Weight and Dimensions
  • Devlopment is order in which you change. It is an acquisition of skills and abilities 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Describe PIES of the Infancy stage-

  • Physical- Developlment of reflexes, motor skills, sensations, perceptions and learning skills.
  • Interlectual- Observational, learning e.g. sucking, grasping, stepping
  • Social/ emotional- touched, held, smiling 

Define Gross and fine motor skills- 

  • Gross- move and coordinate larger areas of your body. This involves arms and legs.
  • Fine- Movement and coordination of small groups or areas such as hands or fingers.

Describe Gross and Motor skills that will occur in the Infancy stage-

  • Gross- Walking, crawling, running, swimming
  • Fine- Grapsing, lifting, waving, clapping, colouring 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Describe PIES of the early childhood stage-

  • Physical- Double in weight, upper body strength, walk and sit up
  • Interlectual- Fine mtoor skills, knife and fork skills
  • Social/ emotional- Vocabulary reahces between 300/ 1000 words in the first 3 years 

Describe Gross and Motor skills that may occur in the early childhood stage- 

  • Gross- Riding a bike, Playing sports, Skipping, Climbing
  • Fine- Writing, Painting, Playing an intrument, tieing shoe laces 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Describe PIES of the Adolescene stage-

  • Physical- Breats, Puberty, can have babies, close to adult weight/ height, pubic hair
  • Interlectual- Plan future, act wirthout thinking 
  • Social/ emotional- Fall in love, friendship groups, moody/ tired 

Describe Primary and Secondary sexual characterics-

  • Primary- Organs and the tissues which we are born with, which have natural purpose and meaning relating to the reproductive system (sexual organs)
  • Secondary- Related to features which appear and devlop in puberty. Examples such as the production of testoerone/ oestrogen, lowering male voice, widening the hips etc. 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Describe PIES of the early adulthood stage-

  • Physical- Females and males stop developing, Physical strength peaks, pregnancy and lactation occur, premenopaisal (oestrogen decreases, physical and meotional symprtoms)
  • Intelectual- Brain development in early 20's 
  • Social/ emotional- Suicide/ depression, starting a family/ marriage 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Describe PIES of the middle adulthood stage- 

  • Physical- Eye sight decreases, gain weight, grey hair, meopause,bones become weaker, immune systen becomes weaker 
  • Interlectual- Tired, forgetful, passegeways slow down 
  • Social/ emotional- more family time, new hobbies, holidays, mid-life crisis
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Describe PIES for the later adulthood stage-

  • Physical- Hair loss, Skin looses elacticity, heaight decreases, loose strength in spine 
  • Interlectual- Strokes, memory loss,dementia, loss of confidence and concentration 
  • Social/ emotional changes- More dependent on others, retirement, worrying about death, grief of friends and loved ones 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Explain these key terms-  Development norms, Developmental milestones, Life course, Maturation and Life expectancy...

  • Development norms- Developing in a expected age range
  • Developmental milestones- Learn to do something new e.g. walking. When children do not reach their devlopmental milestones at expected times this can cause problems. These problems can be minor (autism) or major (down syndrome/ cerebral palsy.) This problems can be caused by genetics or complications like infection, premature birth and toxins.  
  • Life course- From conception to death 
  • Maturation- Growing, developing and maturing 
  • Life expectancy- How long you're expected to live 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

What is arrested devlopment...

The physical, psychological, emotional or social dvelopment which is incomplete. Possible development conditions could include- Autism, Anorecia, Down syndrome and cerebal palsy. Milestones that may be delayed might be puberty, walking, talking etc. 

Treatment/ helpful measures for arrested devlopment... 

  • Therapy/ counselling
  • Meal plans 
  • Regular check ups/ monitoring 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Explain these key terms- Holistic, secondary socialisation, assimilation, accommodiation.

  • Holistic- Different components are linked togehter to create an overall view 
  • Secondary Socialisation- Learning the appropraite behaviour as a member of a group of a larger society 
  • Assimilation- Adapting undertsanding when acquiring new infomation 
  • Accommodation- Exisiting schema does not work and needs to be adapted or changed 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Jean Piaget- Theory of cognitive learning 

What are the three basic concepts of this theory...

  • Schemas (building blocks)- Repeated patterns of behaviour. Transporters- move objects from one place to another continuously. Envelopers- Filling stuff up. Rotators- enjoy rotating things such as wheels. Positioners- lining things up (autism). Enclosers- putting things into boxes. Trajectory- intrested in how things move and respond. Connectors- how to join and seperate things (jigsaws) 
  • Adaptation- Assimilation and accomodation takes place in this concept. This is where young children are able to recieve new infomation and adapt their schema to fit into the new infomation (accomodating.) Children are not able to adapt their understanding of new infomation (assimilation.) 
  • Stages of coognitive development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete and formal)
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

What theory did Chomsky create...

Langauge acquisition theory. The language acquisition device is a hypothetical tool in the brain that helps children quickly learn and understand langauge. Noam Chomsky theorized the LAD to acount for the rapid speed at which children seem to learn language and it's rules. LAD later eveloved into Chomsky's greater theory of grammar. 

  • Children learn words 
  • They have innate, biological understanding of grammar 
  • Children have knowledge of verbs and nounds
  • The LAD is a hypothetical too handwired to the brain that helps children rapidly learn and understand language 
  • Chomsky proposed that every child was born with a LAD that holds the fundemntal rules of language. 
  • Children are born with an understanding of the rules of language, they simply need to acquire the vocabulary, which parents will teach or children will copy.
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

What theory did Albert Bandura create... 

The social learning theory. This theory states that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation and modelling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviourist and cognitive learning theories because it emphasises attention, memory and motivation. Learning is not purely behavioural, rather it is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context. 

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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

John Bowlby's theory of attatchment-

This theory suggests that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attatchments because this will help them survive.

Describe these key terms- Bond, attatchment, deprivation, privation, seperation anxiety, stranger anxiety...

  • Bond- A biological connection e.g. between a mother and child 
  • Attatchment- A bond through choice e.g. friend/ partner 
  • Deprivation- occurs when something is taken away e.g. when a child who has experienced attatchment is seperated for a period of time from their primary attachment figure 
  • Privation- Occurs when a child has never been able to form any attacthments. Privation may have permanent consequences. 
  • Seperation anxiety- Is an anxiety disorder in which an individual experiences excessive anziety regarding seperation from home or from people to whom the individuals has a strong emtoional attatchment 
  • Stranger anxiety- is a form of distress that children experience when exposed to people unfamiliar to them. Symptoms may include- getting quiet, staring, verballing protesting by crying and hiding behind parent/ carer. 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

What resons may cause attatchment not to go smoothly...

  • Foster/ Adoption- Children within the care system, may experience inconsistency and can affect attatchments.
  • Seperation- seperation of parents from their baby. This can have an affect on a baby's sense of indentity. 
  • Post-natal depression- Some mothers are depressed after birth, but PND lasts longer and may affect a mother's ability to bond with their baby.
  • Emotional unavailability- May be due to parents having problems with alochol or druge abuse/ illness. 
  • Disability- Some parents find it harder to attatch to a bay with a disability, and they may struggle with their feelings. Some babies with disabilities may also have difficulty forming attachments. 
  • Prematurity- If  a premature baby is in an incubator, they cannot be picked up and held. This can affect the attachment process. 
  • Abuse- Make you feel as if you cannot rust anyone. 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Explain these key terms- Genetic predisposition, Susceptibility, Congenital and neaural tube defects...

  • Genetic Predisposition- Inherited genes can cause cancer, diabetes, obesity etc.
  • Susceptibility- Increased liklihood of acquiring a disease e.g. respiriatory infection
  • Cogenitial- Present at birth e.g. missing limbs, heart defects 
  • Neural tube defects- Defects of the brain, spine or spinal chord e.g. spina bifida 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Piaget's model states that...

Cognitive development is a child's abililty to learn and solve problems, for example a two-month old baby learning to explore the environment with their hands or eyes or  five- year old learning how to solve simple mathematical problems. 

He came to the conclusion that a four- year old cannot use abstartic logical thinking (the ability to solve problems using imagination without having to be involved practically) because they're not mature enough . He observed that infants use egocentric thinking (not being able to see a situation from another person's point of view.) Piaget belived that the ability to think logically doesn't happen till about seven years old when children can use concrete logical thining (the ability to solve problems providing an individual can see or physically handle to issues involved) to solve problems. For example that the amount of water stays the same when poured into a different shaped container. 

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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Describe the sensorimotor stage... 

Ages from 0 to 2 years old. Infants think by interacting with the world using their yes, ears, ahnds and mouth. As a result, the infant invents ways of solving problems such as pulling a lever to hear the sound of a music box, finding hidden toys and putting objects into and taking them out of containers. Piaget belived that a baby would not have a way of remembering and thinking about the world until they were about 18 months old. 

  • Discover relationships between body and environemnt 
  • Trial and error 
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Describe the pre-operational stage...

Ages from 2 to 7 years old. Children use symbols to represent their earlier sensorimotor discoveries.Development of language and make-belive play takes place. Piaget belived that children at this stage cannot properly understand how ideas like numbers, mass and volume really work. A child might be able to count to 100 but might not understand what a set of 10 really means. If 10 buttons are stretched out in a line and 10 buttons are placed in a pile, a child might say that there are more buttons in the line because it is longer. 

  • words and phrases start to represent object (e.g. moo= cow)
  • Young children think about things symbolically (children see a dog with 4 legs and a tail, they think everything with 4 legs and a tail is a dog.)
  • New infomation is provided and children start to discover that multiple animals have 4 legs and a tail.
  • Symbolism (using a broom as a horse)
  • The child has difficulty taking pther viewpoints (if they ask for something and get old no, they don;t understand why.)
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Describe the Concrete operational stage...

Ages from 7 to 11 years. Children reasoning becomes logical providing the issues are concrete. In this stage, children may be able to understand simple logical principles. 

  • Children can now work out problems and sequences in their heads as opposed to physically having to do them.
  • An example of this is counting on fingers or identifying animals without having to use sounds
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Unit 1-Lifespan & Development

Describe the Formal operational stage... 

Ages from 11 to 18 years old. This is when the capacity for abstract thinking allows adolescents to reason through symbols that do not refer to objects in the real world, as is required in advanced mathematics. Young peopel can also think of possible outcomes of a scientific problem, not just the obvious ones. Abstarct thinking enables individuals to think through complicated ideas in their heads without having to see the conrete image. 

  • Able to question hypotheses and theories 
  • Challeneg ideologies 
  • Come up with their own views 
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