unit 2 revision

what is the role of a doctor(GP)?
provide medical care in surgeries, local communities.
> diagnose, treat, monitor, prevent illness
>provide prescriptions and arrange preventative care
>refer patients to specialists
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what is the role of a specialist doctor?
expert training in particular area, hospitals and clinics
>diagnose, treat, monitor, prevent illness in specialist areas
>liaise with other professionals
>contribute to teams for ongoing care
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what is the role of a nurse?
medical duties at level of seniority&specialism, hospitals, surgeries, clinics and homes
>monitor care for daily chronic and acute medical needs
>support Drs when giving treatment or drugs
>work to restore health and well being
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what is the role of a midwife?
hospital maternity units, clinics and homes
>monitor prenatal development and health of mother and baby
>help deliver babies
>provide postnatal care
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what is the role of a healthcare assistant?
help with daily personal care and support wellbeing, hospitals, clinics, residential care and homes
>work under guidance of qualified professionals
>meet care needs
>monitor health
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how is healthcare provided at a GP surgery/local health centre?
-go here first for medical advice
-Dr diagnose illness, may have prescription or get referred
-nurses carry out treatment, screenings, blood tests
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how is healthcare provided at a hospital?
-treatment GP can't give
-operations and A&E
referred by GP to specialist medical teams
specialist doctors may give prescription for specialist medication or refer to surgeon
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how is healthcare provided at a clinic?
-specific medical conditions
-referred by GP to specialist clinics, in hospital or community
-trained personnel work here
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how is healthcare provided at home?
-housebound or recovering people
-prefer to recover at home
-prefer to be nursed at home if dying
-may be provided at home for births too
-treated at home by community-based nursing and midwifery staff
-doctors carry out home visits if necessary
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how does a service user get treated?
1.appointment with GP, report chest pains. Dr asks questions, use equipment to diagnose
2.refer to clinic where seen by specialist
3.operation isn't necessary but prescribe medication, control heart rate
4.appointment with nurse, check progress
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what is the role of a care manager?
day to day running of residential setting
>recruit&manage staff
>control budget
>responsible ensuring services meet NOS
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what is the role of a care assistant?
carry out day to day routines
>meet personal needs
>assist in monitoring health&wellbeing, liaising with other professionals
>help with transport, tasks and shopping
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what is the role of a social worker?
find solutions
-protect vulnerable from harm/abuse
>help live independently
>support children and carers
>help with disabilities or m.h problems
>help with substance misuse + young offenders
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what s the role of a youth worker?
help 11-25 reach full potential
>manage&administer youth/community projects and resources
>monitor&review quality of local youth work provision, work with families/carers
>support individuals
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what is the role of a support worker?
support individuals and other social care workers
>vary duties depending on needs and wishes of individual
>support overall comfort and wellbeing, under supervision
>help and support to live independently
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what is a residential care setting?
-can't be cared for at home, feel no longer cope on their own
-full time or temporary respite care, give break to carers
-provide residents with personal care
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what is domiciliary care?
-own home
-care workers supporting their independence
-help with shopping, cleaning and transport
-provide carers with a short break from their duties
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what is a daycare centre?
-older people, those with learning and physical disabilities
-respite care
-leisure activities
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what are the benefits of residential care?
-trained staff support and meet needs
-specialist support for complex care needs
-companionship provided
-stimulating activities offered
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what are the difficulties for people in residential care?
-losing some or all independence
-reluctant to leave home
-isolation from friends&family
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what are the medical responsibilities of a doctor?
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what are the non medical responsibilities of a doctor?
-create relationship with patients
-observe, listen and respond
-maintain records and confidentiality
-act in accordance to legislation
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what are the medical responsibilities of a nurse?
-administer treatment
-carry out routine investigations
-prepare for operations
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what are the non medical responsibilities of a nurse?
-patient care plans
-patient discharge
-patient advocate
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what are the medical responsibilities of a midwife?
-diagnose, monitor, examine pregnant women
-antenatal care
-assist during labour
-supervise pain management
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what are the non medical responsibilities of a midwife?
-prepare and review patient care plans
-parenting and health education
-support and advise on care of newborn, miscarriage, termination, neonatal death
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what are the medical responsibilities of a healthcare assistant?
-monitoring conditions by taking: temperature, pulse, respiration rate
-blood samples
-health checks
-weighing patients
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what are the non medical responsibilities of a healthcare assistant?
-help with patient mobility
-support day to day routines
-talking to patients under direction of nursing staff
-supporting&delivering health education
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what are the medical responsibilities of an occupational therapist?
-being aware of acute medical conditions
-how to overcome conditions
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what are the non medical responsibilities of an occupational therapist?
-advising on specialist equipment
-advising on home&workplace alterations
-assist on return to work
-enabling rehab
-organising support and rehab groups for carers
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what are the responsibilities of a care manager?
-day to day running of care setting
-supervising care assistants
-ensure quality of care meets standards and legislations
-suitable staff
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what are the skills, qualities and tasks of a care manager?
-creating&maintaining relationships&trust
-accurate records
-observe, listen and respond to concerns
-maintain confidentiality
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what are the responsibilities of a care assistant?
-provide appropriate personal care
-general household tasks
-other routine roles required by supervisor
-liaising with other professionals
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what are the skills, qualities and tasks of a care assistant?
-different care settings
-observe and report changes
-make feel at ease
-maintain confidentiality
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what are the responsibilities of a social worker?
-designated case load
-professional registration
-regulatory guidelines
-informed of policies and procedures
-liaising with other agencies
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what are the skills, qualities and tasks of a social worker?
-prepare, review case files
-difficult decisions
-variety of service users
-ensure continuity of care
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what are the responsibilities of a youth worker?
-demonstrating values
-background check (DBS)
-act as a mentor
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what are the skills, qualities and tasks of a
youth worker?
-across different sectors
-develop projects
-offer advice on range of topics
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what are the responsibilities of a
support worker?
-following instructions of professionals
-implementing care plans
-supporting members of families who provide care with parenting, financial or domestic skills
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how do you support someone with a physical disability at home?
-ensure access to all rooms
-facilities within reach, not at floor level
-hoists available if necessary
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how do you support someone with a physical disability at an educational setting?
-access classrooms and laboratories
-access to exercise facilities
-curriculum is adapted to meet needs
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how do you support someone with a physical disability at work?
-awareness training
-support worker present
-extra time to complete tasks
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how do you support someone with a physical disability at a leisure setting?
-accessible changing facilities
-suitable signage
-adapted seating and spaces for elevated wheelchair viewing
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why are policies and procedures in place?
-ensure health and safety of service users and workers
-support day to day routines
-enable needs and preferences to be met
-promote independence
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what are the daily responsibilities of workers?
-following policies and procedures
-provide equipment&adaptations
-personal care
-enabling rehab
-support routines
-assessment, care and support planning
-healing and supporting recovery
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what is discrimination?
when someone is:
>treated unfairly because of who they are
-treated unequally because of who they are
-experiences prejudice
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what is direct discrimination?
treating someone worse, differently or less favourably because of characteristics. includes harassment and victimisation
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what is indirect discrimination?
organisations policies, practices or rules worse effect on some. e.g pregnancy and maternity discrimination
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what action can you take against discrimination?
where people have protected characteristic, it's possible to voluntarily help them. this is called a positive action and may take place if they are at a disadvantage, have particular needs or are under represented in work or activity
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what are examples of anti-discriminatory practice in health and social care?
-accessible signage
-leaflets in many languages
-building access
-longer appointments for people with learning disabilities
-policies such as anti-bullying for schools
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what is the Equality Act 2010?
protects people from discrimination by:
>health and care providers
>schools, colleges, other education providers
>transport services
>public bodies (government departments and local authorities)
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what characteristics are protected by the Equality Act 2010?
-marital/civil partnership status
-sexual orientation
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what are examples of anti-discriminatory practice for a traveller?
-access to GP in different locations
-ensure hostile language isn't used
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what are examples of anti-discriminatory practice for a transgender person?
-acceptable gender terminology
-recognise associated mental health issues
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what are examples of anti-discriminatory practice for a person with hearing impairment?
-hearing loops in GP surgeries
-BSL to communicate
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what are examples of anti-discriminatory practice for an asylum seeker?
-translation services if needed
-recognise cultural preferences
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what are examples of anti-discriminatory practice for a child with emotional and behavioural difficulties?
-peer mediation and mentoring in schools
-nurture groups
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what are examples of anti-discriminatory practice for a person with physical disabilities?
-accessible rooms in clinics
-support participation in exercise/sports
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how do professionals challenge discrimination?
doctors:consult patient notes, check preferred language&treatment
nurses:ask male/female nurse to treat them
social worker:advise actions, address discrimination they experience
occupational therapist:live independently ensuring appropriate equipment
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what is empowerment?
empowerment means giving individuals information and support so they can make informed decisions and make choices about their lives in order to live as independently as possible
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how do you empower a service user?
-individualised care
-promoting dignity, independence, rights, choices&wellbeing
-users at heart of service provision
-appropriately dealing with conflict
enabling expression of needs and preferences
-providing support
-balancing rights
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how do you empower a child?
not same as adult empowerment because they might not understand what they are being told or what they are asked to do
>explain treatments in appropriate language so that they understand and gain insight about how to respond to it
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what are rights?
rights are entitlements that everyone should receive. people's rights are protected by the Human Rights Act 1998 and Equality Act 2010
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what are key rights?
-free from discrimination
-express needs and preferences
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how do you support the right of dignity?
respecting them
>providing privacy in a bathroom
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how do you support the right to express needs and preferences?
active support, enable consistent choice
>support about choices
>methods such as petitions to put forward needs and preferences, raise concerns
>supporting those who need help
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how do you support the right of independence?
promoting independence through freedom, choice and support
>older person choose where to live
>supporting person with learning difficulties
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how do you support the right to safety and security
changing legislation-smoking ban
dealing with conflict-applying policies
protecting from hark/risk-apply measures
encourage behaviour change-education&training, accessible language
balancing individual rights-clear training&policies
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how do you support the right of equality?
equal opportunities and access to services
>fair allocation of budgets
>accountability through local authority representation
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how do you support the right to freedom from discrimination?
providing clear guidelines for practice&complaints procedures
>registering complaints, investigating and receiving feedback
>recognition and investigation into abuse
>representing some cases where treatments aren't available to some
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what are the possible risks in care ?
-inadequate supervision of facilities&support staff
-lack of illness prevention measures
-infection due to lack of clean facilities
-inadequate control of harmful substances
-lack properly maintained first-aid
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how do you manage risks in care?
-risk assessments
-codes of practice
-qualified staff with DBS check
-regular&evidenced check of facilities
-availability of PPE
-procedures in place
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how do you mitigate a risk in a health and social care setting?
specialist equipment like hoist
>sufficient training to use it
adequate supervision for hot drink
>ensure drink isn't too hot, stable cup if necessary
infection from accident&spillage
>support for meal times
>suitable utensils and protection
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how do you report an incident or accident?
-report to relevant person
-classify according to type&severity
-prioritise issues for appropriate actions
-propose preventative measures
-implement changes
-monitor effectiveness
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what are the barriers to incident reporting?
-seen as not important at time
-form is too long or requires too much detail
-care staff have more pressing duties
-difficult to access person
-pressure from managers to not report complaint
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what are the problems with evidence?
-inconsistent witness statements
-lack detail
-poor recall of events
-written evidence conflicts other evidence
-low standard of english
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what are the 4 key points about complaints procedures?
1.all care settings must have them in place
2.all care settings must enable access to them
3.checked when care providers are inspected
4.lead to service improvements
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what do services users have the right for?
-complaints dealt within appropriate time frame
-taken seriously
-full&thorough investigation of concerns raised
-information about outcomes of investigations into complaints
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what is the Data Protection Act 1998?
controls how personal information is used by organisations, businesses or government
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what must data be?
-used fairly&lawfully
-used for limited, specifically stated purposes
-used in adequate, relevant and not excessive way
-kept for no longer than necessary
-handled according to people's date protection rights
-safe and secure
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what is there strong legal protection for?
-ethnic background
-political opinion
-religious beliefs
-sexual health&preferences
-criminal record
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what data can an employer keep about a health and social care worker?
-date of birth
-emergency contact details
-employment history&work experience
-NI number&tax code
details of disabilities
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how is confidentiality ensured?
-DPA 1998
-adhering to legal&workplace requirements
-securely recording, storing, retrieving information
-maintaining confidentiality to safeguard
-following appropriate procedures
-respecting rights
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what is confidentiality?
restricting access to information about a service user to individuals who are involved in their care, unless permission to disclose information is given by service user
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what methods of storage are covered by the DPA 1998?
-computers, tablets, mobile phones
-social media
-written, paper records
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what is safeguarding?
maintaining service users confidentiality is part of safeguarding practice, so the clients are protected from harm and abuse and their health and wellbeing is promoted.
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what are examples of professional bodies?
england: nursing and midwifery council(NMC), royal college of nursing(RCN), health and care professions council(HCPC) and general medical council(GMC)
wales:england and care council for wales(social care)
northern ireland:england and northern ireland soc
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what regulations do workers have to follow?
-codes of professional conduct
-familiar with and apply codes of practice
-ensure revalidation procedures are followed
-follow procedures for raising concerns(whistleblowing)
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what happens if a worker doesn't follow a regulation?
-disciplined by employer or professional organisation or some cases by police
-when disciplined may have some responsibilities taken away, loose professional status, lose their job or even get put in prison if crime is serious enough
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what does regulation mean?
regulation is a law which sets the standard of professional conduct required of workers in the health and social care setting.
regulations are mandatory
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what are examples of safeguarding?
-sterile equipment
-hoists available
-safe play areas
-effective procedures, control and disposal of harmful substances/sharps
-assessment of children and appropriate action
-no staff isolation&DBS
-policies and confidentiality followed
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how do you safeguard a child?
-protect them from maltreatment&infection
-follow safeguarding policies and take action is child discloses abuse
-prevent impairment of health and development
-ensure grow up in consistent safe&effective care
-take action to enable children to have best
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what is the local safeguarding children board's job?
-understands importance of child safety
-LSCB agencies doing the best job
-report to department of health
-look into cases where badly hurt/died
-keep information about child deaths
-advise agencies
-listen to views&hold discussions
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how do you safeguard adults?
care act 2014 introduced new safeguarding duties for local authorities, provide care for adults.
-making enquiries
-hosting safeguarding adults boards & carrying out reviews
-arranging provision of independent advocates
-leading multi-agency system
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why is partnership working important?
-improves vulnerable lives
-don't have to repeat information
-improves information sharing&efficiency as whole
-coordinates care
-feel like treated as a whole(holistic care)rather than series of issues
-improves planning&commissioning of care
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what are the difficulties of partnership working?
-failure to communicate between services
-lack coordination so don't receive care they need or care is duplicated
-delayed discharge from hospital
-different health providers can't communicate
-cuts in funding
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how do you work in partnership with families?
working with informal carers, friend&family to plan, aid decision making and enable support
-important to be willing to work with others
-respect expertise and opinions
-accept help when needed. e.g family member may be good advocate
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what are the advantages of holistic care?
-more personalised care
-other issues contribute to ill health, identified&addressed
-viewed as a whole person improving general health and wellbeing
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what are the disadvantages of holistic care?
-most only want one symptom or illness treated
-doctors don't look for other issues in diagnosis
-workers aren't employed or skilled to manage all aspects of individuals needs
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what is advocacy?
service users, carers, other advocates should be involved in decision-making&planning support with service providers, working in partnership
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what does advocacy allow?
-expression of views and concerns, so taken seriously
-access information and services
-defend&promote rights&responsibilities
-explore choices and options
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what are internal monitors?
health and social care worker must follow codes of practice and policies in the settings they work
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what are the internal monitor roles?
lead/senior nurses:group wards, deal problems doctors:diagnose, investigate&treat matrons:charge of group of wards, excellent experience&safety ward sister/charge nurse:whole ward nurse specialist:advice&specialism healthcare assistant:meet care needs
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what is whistleblowing?
member of staff raise concern about patient care, if individual's safety is at risk
concerns reported to relevant staff and maintains best practice
whistleblowers are protected by law and shouldn't be treated unfairly or loose their job
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what happens if whistleblowing policies aren't followed?
-bad practice continues, harming individuals
-more complaints
-staff leave or perform less well
-service provider receive more negative reports
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what do inspections cover?
external bodies monitor services, through inspection.
-analysis of internal data&trends
-investigate complaints
-observe service delivery
-collection of service-user feedback
-interview staff
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when are criminal investigations pursued?
-suspected abuse
-take account of safeguarding
-follow referrals to police from care provider, CCG's, specialised care settings, individuals who suspect crime has been committed
-lead to suspension or dismissal of care workers
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what are some examples of external monitoring?
external agencies inspect care settings by visiting and observing practice. feedback takes place as part of inspection process, also be informally to monitor care through everyday feedback
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what are health public bodies?
NHS foundation trusts and GP services are public sector organisations which provide NHS services for adults and children
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what are social care public bodies?
local authorities(councils) public sector organisations which provide social care services for adults and children, include: help in home, support carers, financial support, independence enhancing equipment
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what is commissioning?
-planning service specification
-agreeing service procurement
-monitoring delivery
e.g. NHS commissions primary healthcare that deal with range of physical, psychological and social issues
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what is primary care?
1st point of contact, give access to day-to-day services for patients, refers them to specialists when needed
e.g. -GP
-dental practice
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what do NHS foundation trusts do?
-run hospitals
-provide mental, community and child health services
-work in partnership with other ogranisations
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what do local authorities do?
-commission organisations to provide social care services(domiciliary, daycare)
-commissioned organisations public, private or voluntary sector
commissioned services for adult social care (residential, nursing homes)
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what is a private provider?
-service provided by businesses, often pay for the,
-hc=boots, BUPA, virgin healthcare, private sector doctors
-sc=residential, nursing homes, counselling
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what is a voluntary/third provider?
-non-profit organisations, usually charities
-hc=hospices, macmillan cancer support nurse, marie cure nurse, marie stopes, sexual health services
-sc=age UK, mind, barnardo's, children's society, mencap
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how do sexual health services support service users?
-provided by GP
-advice about STI, contraception, pregnancy, sexual assault&abortion
-contraceptives and medication
-free&available to everyone
-target specific groups
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how does mencap support people with a learning disability?
-provides residential care
-provides education services
-trains people
-promotes awareness
-challenges prejudice
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what is a hospital?
-receive treatment from specialised staff&equipment
-referred by GP
-provide emergency care
-right to choose what hospital, team of specialists and decisions about treatment
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what is a daycare unit?
-provide assessment of their health needs
-surgery&medical procedures can take place
-provide services which meet needs of older people or people with mental ill health or learning disability
-provide respite care
-part of NHS but some privately run
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what is secondary care?
provided by specialists in hospitals
-cardiologist:treat disease&illness of heart&blood vessels
-urologists:treat disease&illness to urinary tract
-radiologist:treat illness using xray, MRI scan, etc
-orthopaedic surgeon:treat injuries&disorders of skelet
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what does hospice staff do?
-aim to improve life of those with terminal illness
-take care of PIES needs
-aim to control pain experienced through palliative care
-support carers, family&friends during illness and bereavement
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what is palliative care?
-multidisciplinary approach to specialised medical care for those with serious illness
-active and holistic
-focuses on providing relief from symptoms, pain, physical&mental stress of illness
-regards as paramount the management of pain, symptoms, suppo
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what is the goal of palliative care?
-affirm life&help regard death as normal process
-offer support to live as actively as possible until their death
-help relatives cope with illness and bereavement
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what is personal care?
people who live in residential care homes receive social care or personal care from care assistants or support workers
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what is nursing care?
people in nursing homes receive healthcare from trained medical staff such as nurses
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what are other residential care settings?
-care homes for adults aged 18-65 provide care&support for younger people with disabilities or injuries
-residential care settings for children and adolescents specialise in providing support for children with a physical disability or emotional problem
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what is independence?
people who live independently at home, usually happier&healthier than people in a home. one of the reasons why domiciliary care is provided and independence is key care principle
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what is workplace care?
codes of practice&health and safety regulations designed to ensure safety
some workplaces support employees with specific needs
may also be provision of services such as counselling
health&safety officer might give advice on safety at work
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what are the types of domiciliary care?
formal care-paid staff, referred to as home helps, care assistants or carers, undergo qualifications&training
informal care-family members, relatives, friends, not paid, provided by children
voluntary sector-formal and informal often by volunteers
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what are young carers?
grow up faster as they take on adult roles
may suffer from stress, isolation, effects of poverty
often miss out on schooling and other opportunities limiting long term life chances
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what is respite care?
gives informal carer a break from caring for an individual
Care Act 2014 sets out rights of adults who provide care, may include respite
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what does respite care include?
home care services/residential/nursing care, break from providing overnight carer so they can catch up on sleep, hospices provide respite in the home
alternatively, individual may move into nursing or residential home for short stay or day care centre
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what is referral?
make appointment with GP, healthcare needs are assessed, GP may refer them to specialist doctor (hospital) or medical staff (clinic)
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what are the types of clinic?
-provide outpatient care
-located in hospitals, support many health needs
-specialised baby care, ENT issues, asthma/allergy, sleep, glaucoma, dermatology
-do not stay overnight, usually treated in day clinics
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what does a needs assessment consider?
-needs and impact on care
-things that matter to them
-choices and goals
-services, information and advice that will prevent or delay needs from developing, stay well for longer
-family needs
-limitation of cost
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what is the eligibility criteria?
-arise from, or related to physical or mental impairment/illness
-make them unable to achieve specified outcomes
-impact significantly on wellbeing
only eligible if meet all 3 criteria
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what are individual needs and specified outcomes?
-prepare&eat food/drink
-maintain personal/home hygiene
-toilet/dress appropriately
-move around
-care for others
-local facilities
-access occupations, personal relationships to prevent loneliness
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what do people with specific needs include?
-learning&physical disabilities
-mental ill health
-older people
-transitioning from one sex to another
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what are individual preferences?
-religious/cultural beliefs, reject certain medicines
-exercise right to be treated in local hospital
-women prefer care from women
-terminal illness not to get treated
-mental ill health unable to make decisions
-older person remain independent
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what are other barriers to accessing services?
financial:richer may pay for their care
social:rough sleepers unlikely to get care they need
cultural:english isn't first language
geographical:certain areas may not get same level of service as others because its less available
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what are charities?
NSPCC:prevent and end child abuse, offer advice on safeguarding&preventing neglect
mental health foundation:improve lives, promote service development
shelter:reduce homelessness, advice about tenancy&renting
stonewall:promote awareness of LGBT issues
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what do charities do?
-represent interests to government
-raise money
-work in partnership
-challenge public attitudes&prejudice
-prevent discrimination
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what are patient groups?
NHS organisations have legal duty to involve public in decisions about running local health services, some CCG's have patient groups. listened to, actions taken to meet concerns
represented by:governors, MPs, advocates, comments/feedback proposed changes
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what do patient groups do?
-represent interests
-provide feedback
-provide volunteers
-take part in research
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what does an advocate do?
enables service user to
>express views and concerns
>access information&services
>defend&promote rights&responsibilities
>explore choices and options
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who can be an advocate?
-organisations&charities have professional advocacy services
-friends, family members and carers
-individual on own behalf (self advocacy)
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who might need an advocate?
-mental ill health
-learning disability
-speech difficulties or confidence issues
-first language isn't english
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what are the other types of advocacy?
peer advocacy:someone with similar problem can support someone
statutory advocacy:individual is entitled to advocacy under the law
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how do you represent the interests of service users?
complaints and whistleblowing policies
>all care settings must provide access to complaints procedures
>whistleblowing maintains best practice if member of staff raises concern
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how do inspectors carry out inspections?
1.identify scope&purpose
2.gather views of s.u
3.gather information from staff
4.observe service delivery
5.review records
7.feedback at meeting with team and staff
8.publish findings
9.take action to improve
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what happens after the inspection?
-service provider is graded
-requirements or warning notices may be given
-organisations and individuals asked to implement policy or changes
-limit services provided or faces criminal prosecution
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what actions do providers make in response to inspection?
-write&implement improvement action plan
-enhanced staff training
-improve partnership working
-ensure changes to working practices
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how can you improve a hospital?
-monitor compliance with hygiene procedures
-store cleaning equipment correctly
-replace damaged theatre equipment
-better nutrition for patients
-complete documents accurately
-reduce delays in referral
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how can you improve an early years setting?
-replace unsafe equipment
-promote individuals development&meet needs
-improve record keeping
-improve partnership with parents
-rich learning environment, challenges and stimulates
-improve leadership&motivate staff
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what is the CQC?
independent regulator of health and social care for England
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what is the role of the Care Quality Commission(CQC)?
-register care providers
-monitor, inspect, rate services
-take action to protect service users
-be an independent voice
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what questions do the CQC ask at inspections?
-is it safe?
-is it effective?
-is it caring?
-is it responsive?
-is it well led?
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what is the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence(NICE)?
NICE provides national guidance and advice to improve health and social care
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what is the role of NICE?
-produce evidence-based guidance&advice
-develop quality standards&performance measures
-provide range of information services
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how does NICE provide guidance?
provides guidance about standards in care, advises on safety and effectiveness of treatments and services, covering:
>population groups
>service delivery, organisation, staffing
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what is Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills (OFSTED)?
independent, impartial public body that reports directly to Parliament
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what is OFSTED's role?
-achieve excellence, inspecting childcare, adoption, fostering agencies, teacher training
-publishes reports of findings help improve quality & inform policy
-regulates early years&children's social care services so they are suitable for children
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what is Public Health England(PHE)?
government body that protects and improves England's health and wellbeing
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what is PHE's role?
-work as part of regional and local health system to reduce health inequalities
-protect health of people in England
-share information and expertise to make improvements
-carry out research
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what is the Care and Social Services Inspectorate Wales(CSSIW) and what is their role?
is-regulator for adult and childcare and social services in Wales
role-inspect social care services to make sure they are safe for people to use
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what does the CSSIW do?
-provide independent advice about quality&availability of social care
-safeguards adults and children, making sure rights are protected
-improves care by encouraging&promoting improvements in care
-provide advice
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what is the Healthcare Inspectorate Wales (HIW) and what is its role?
is-independent inspectorate and regulator of all healthcare in Wales
role-inspect NHS and independent healthcare organisations in Wales
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what does the HIW do?
carries out inspections by
>focus on how well vulnerable are safeguarded
>identify effective services, highlight improvements
>investigate systematic failures
>immediate action if standards aren't met
>inform patients about standards
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what does NICE do in Wales and Northern Ireland?
-improve outcome
-evidence-based guidance and advice
-develop quality standards and performance measurements
-range of information is provided
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what is Her Majesty's Inspectorate for Education and Training in Wales (Estyn)?
crown body, independent of but funded by the welsh government, inspects education providers in Wales
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what does Estyn do?
-inspects all schools, nurseries, regional educational consortia, post 16 providers
-advice on quality and standards in education and training
-makes public good practice based on inspection evidence
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how does Estyn carry out inspections?
-observe practitioners
-measuring performance of organisations and personnel against national standards
-providing evidence-based judgements
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what is the Regulation and Quality Improvement Authority (RQIA)?
Northern Ireland's independent health and social care regulator
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what is RQIA's role?
-register, inspect wide range of independent&statutory services
-assure quality of services
-undertake range of responsibilities
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what is the Public Health Agency(PHA)?
organisation for health protection and improving health and social wellbeing in Northern Ireland
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what is PHA's role?
-promote health and social wellbeing
-promote health protection
-give support to commissioning agencies
-lead policy development
-carry out research and development
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how does PHA carry out its role?
-2014, published 10 year strategy for improving public health
-implementing strategy through partnership working
-monitors implementation of strategy
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what is the Education and Training Inspectorate(ETI)?
independent organisation which inspects education providers in Northern Ireland
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what does ETI do?
-inspects all education providers
-provides information about quality of education to government
-promotes best practice
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how does ETI carry out inspections?
-insist inspectors follow codes of conduct
-observe practitioner
-assess quality of teaching and learning
-assess standards achieved by learners
-provide reports which are publicly available
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what does the Nursing and Midwifery Council do?
NMC regulates by:
>ensuring nurses and midwives have right qualifications and skills
>sets standards of practice and behaviour
>requires nurses&midwives to challenge discrimination
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what does the Royal College of Nursing do?
RCN represents by:
>setting out principles of nursing practice, nurses' roles&responsibilities in safeguarding
>ensuring accountability of practitioners, promoting CPD
>supporting diversity
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what does the Health and Care Professions Council do?
HCPC keeps register of professionals who meet standards for training, skills, behaviour&health sets standards in:
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what does the General Medical Council?
independent organisation, helps protect patients&improve medical education&practice
>decides which drs are qualified, oversees medical education&training
>sets standards drs follow, continue meet standards
>take action, prevent drs risking safety
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what does Care Council for Wales do?
CCW/social care regulates social care, services are of high standard by:
>identify relevant roles
>requiring registration
>setting code of professional practice
>carry out inspections
>recommend role/staff removal, if fail to meet standards
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what is the Northern Ireland Social Care Council?
NISCC regulatory body
>requires registration
>code of practice ensure they are followed
>monitors&improves training&qualifications
>provide workforce development ensure follow regulations&meet standards
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how do you respond to regulations?
organisations and individuals must respond to regulation and inspection with changes in working practices where required and improvement services
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what are the National Occupational Standards
statements of standards of performance individuals must achieve when carrying out functions in workplace
>describe best practice to apply in all settings
>underpin codes of practice
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what are examples of standards?
-receiving visitors
-provide advice&information
-contributing to social care in emergency
-support individuals to use medication
-monitor&maintain health, safety, security
-minimising risk of spread of infection
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what are performance criteria examples?
one of standards for people who work in health and social care, which organisations provide code of practice, is how to receive visitors
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what is the performance criteria for meeting visitors>
-ensure visiting area is safe
-talk to visitor to find out why they are visiting
-provide support according to knees
-ensure information given is accurate
-maintain confidentiality
-seek help if unable to deal with a situation
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what is a code of practice?
set of guidelines, sometimes based on legal regulations, explains how members of profession have to behave
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what are codes of practice relating to key issues in H&SC?
-data protection
-professional conduct
-end-of-life care
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why do we need codes of practice?
-essential guides to best practice
-inform practitioners of rights and responsibilities
-outline behaviours&attitudes to expect
-help achieve high quality, safe, compassionate care and support
-enable safety
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what do health and social care workers have to do throughout their career?
-before work, qualifications
-undertake induction&training
-trained, experienced professionals
-access training, regulatory bodies
-nurses revalidated,3years,
-CPD mandatory for social workers wishing to renew registration
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how do you safeguard an employee?
following protocols, membership of trades unions helps safeguard interests
-British Medical Association trades union&association of drs&med students
-nurses=Royal College of Nurses
-midwives=Royal College of Midwives
-Unite, Unison protect all
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what are trades unions?
organised associations of workers in trade, group or profession, protect&promote rights and interests of members, may be involved when employees make complaints about safeguarding, offers advice and legal support to protect workers
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what are professional associations?
carry out similar roles to trade unions but usually represent one group or type of worker, also represent and protect interests of general public
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how does a regulatory body deal with a complaint?
following protocols of regulatory bodies safeguards employees, some complaints may be dealt with using organisation's internal procedures, more serious breaches may involve external agencies such as regulatory bodies or police
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how are complaints about an employee dealt with?
1.complaint made
2.right to be accompanied by trades union representative/work colleague
3. continues work if possible
4.no in/direct discrimination
5.informal resolution(line manager)
6.formal resolution(human resources department)
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what is whistleblowing?
if employee is concerned about unsafe work practices/lack of care by professionals, duty to promptly raise concern if they believe patients' safety is at risk or dignity is being compromised, protected by law as acting in public interest
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where is care given?
-hospital/daycare unit/clinic
-GP surgeries
-residential&nursing homes
-home(domiciliary care)
those who provide care in different settings have different roles
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who provides the care?
-healthcare assistants
help people get better or learn to manage conditions, multidisciplinary teams to discuss best options
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what is the nurses role in caring for people with specific needs who are ill?
1.admission procedures
2.correct information
3.appropriate language
4.preferences respected
5.correct medication dosage
6.accurate notes
7.prepare for surgery
8.monitor recovery
9.prepare care plans
10.patient discharge
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what are different types of mental health problems?
-anorexia nervosa
-postnatal depression
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what are the 4 main care providers for someone with mental ill health?
-private sector
professionals in m.h include psychologists&psychiatrists
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what is legislation?
most serious case of mental ill health, can be detained under the Mental Health Act 1983, admitted to hospital, detained&treated without consent for their safety or others, usually drs&other mental health professionals make decision to detain someone
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how do you prevent mental ill health?
-talk about feelings
-keep active
-eat and drink sensibly
-keep in touch
-ask for help
-take break
-accepting themselves
-caring for others
-fun activities
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what are the 4 key care priorities?
-choices to have a say in their care
-care in community, personalised support
-innovative services offer range of care options
-early, intensive support for people so they can stay independent
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what are the 4 main care providers for someone with a learning disability?
-support workers
-social workers
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what is the focus on people with a learning disability?
may be referred to as 'people with behaviour which challenges', important to recognise they are people and their condition is not main way they should be recognised, labelled or treated
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how do you care for a person with a learning disability?
-preserve independence
-care meets needs
-understandable language
-preferences respected
-treat with dignity
-report risk
-facilitate social activities
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what are thee types of physical and sensory disability?
-sensory(hearing/visual impairment)
-neurologist(motor neurone disease/ms)
-spinal cord injury(spina bifida)
-amputation(limb removed)
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what are the 4 main care providers for someone with a physical and sensory disability?
-support workers
-specialist medical teams
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how do you care for someone with a physical or sensory disability?
-help deal with diagnosis
-support others
-ensure care reflects needs
-enable access to care
-obtain suitable equipment
-arrange necessary adaptations
-support programmes
-access benefits
-respite offered
-help cope with adjustments
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what are children's specific needs?
-learning disability
-physical disability
-exhibit behaviour which challenges
-severe illness
-victims of abuse or neglect
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what are the 5 main care providers for a child with specific needs?
2.other family&friends
4.specialist support
5.specialist medical staff(paediatrician)
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what is the role of a carer for a child?
-keep safe
-ensure healthy environment, confidentiality, welfare is paramount
-provide accessible environment
-encourage development
-work in partnership
-not judgemental
-promote rights
-positive contribution
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what are children entitled to?
prime:communication&language, physical development, personal, social, emotional development
core:literacy, maths, understanding world, expressive arts&design
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what rights do adults have?
-choose GP
-equal&fair treatment
-consulted about care&preferences
-protected from harm&risk
-access complaints procedures, advocacy&empowerment
specialists who promote health&prevent&treat disease for elderly are involved in geriatrics
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who is classes as a vulnerable person at risk?
-mental health
-degenerative disease
-no longer well or strong enough to cope with day to day tasks
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what is the carers role in later adulthood?
-supporting management or risks
-enable independence
-access benefits
-ensure confidentiality, no discrimination
-promote rights
-provide mediation
-prevent self-neglect, abuse
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what is the development or progression of physical and mental conditions?
-treatment/medication to manage conditions, mental conditions
-treatment&support for sensory impairment
-treatment involving surgical intervention&physiotherapy
-provision of support
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what is the involvement of friends or family?
-advice from specialist staff
-supported if unable to express needs&preferences
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what is the intervention to maintain physical and mental health?
-support exercise programmes&guidance
-guidance on nutrition
-ensure oral health
-provision of healthy ageing advice, screenings and other assessments for early diagnosis of conditions
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what is the purpose of policies and procedures?
-needs and interests always respected and upheld
-interventions&responses are appropriate, timely, professional and ethical
-all decisions&actions taken in line with legislation which is active at time
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what does regulations, codes of practice, guidelines, policies and procedures mean?
regulations:laws issued by government
codes of practice:guidelines, tell how to behave
guidelines:advice on how to follow codes of practice
policies:statements of intent
procedures:instructions must follow when completing task
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how do you protect a service user?
following codes of practice, guidelines, policies&procedures, ensures staff:
>work together, protect from abuse
>empower&support to make own choices
>investigate actual/suspected abuse&neglect
>provide services for abuse, neglect and exploitation
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how do you protect staff?
-implement best practice
-relevant skills
-work effectively and within the law
-adhere to guidelines
-minimise risk
-more protected if something goes wrong
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what are the 5 goals of the NHS outcomes framework (2015)?
-preventing premature deaths
-enhance quality of life for l.t conditions
-help recover from episodes of illness
-ensure positive experience
-treating&caring in safe environment&protecting from avoidable harm
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what is principle A devised by the RCN?
nurses and nursing staff treat everyone in their care with dignity&humanity-understand individual needs, show compassion&sensitivity, provide care respectfully and equally
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what is principle B devised by the RCN?
nurses and nursing staff take responsibility for care they provide&answer own judgements&actions-carry out actions agreed with patients&family&carers of patients in way that meets requirements of their professional bodies and the law
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what is principle C devised by the RCN?
nurses and nursing staff manage risk are vigilant about risk and help keep everyone safe in the places they receive healthcare
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what is principle D devised by the RCN?
nurses and nursing staff provide and promote care that puts people at centre, involves patients, service users, their careers in decisions and helps them make informed decisions about treatment and care
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what is principle E devised by the RCN?
nurses and nursing staff are at heart of the communication process:assess, record, report on treatment&care, handle information sensitively&confidentially, deal with complaints effectively, conscientious reporting things they are concerned about
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what is principle F devised by the RCN.
nurses and nursing staff have up-to-date knowledge and skills, use intelligence, insight and understandings in line with the needs of each individuals in care
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what is principle G devised by the RCN?
nurses and nursing staff work closely with own teams and other professionals making sure patients care and treatment is coordinated and is of a high standard with the best outcomes
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what is principle H devised by the RCN?
nurses and nursing staff lead by example, develop themselves and other staff and influence how care is given in a manner that is open and responds to individual needs
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what are the failures of working practices?
some high-profile cases such as failings in standards of care&apparently high deaths rates noted by care commission by Mid Staffordshire NHS, report looked generally at quality of recruitment, training and support for non-registered staff in hospitals
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what is privacy, dignity and self-esteem?
staff value contribution individuals make to life of home, residents should:
>own private space
>opportunity to choose how to dress, eat, sleep
>decide how to be addressed
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what is independence, choice and control?
staff allow time to do things when they can&not take over, residents should:
>choose how to spend time
>decide participation, maintain relationships
> opportunities for emotional&sexual expression
>access external advice, representation and advocacy
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what is diversity and individuality?
remain individuals with own dislikes and likes, diversity should be recognised, residents should:
>feel needs are responded to
>opportunity to express and pursue beliefs
>attend places of worship
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what is balancing safety and risk?
anxieties raised by staff&relatives should be discussed where possible, agreement should be reached which balances risks against rights, residents should:
>not be discouraged from activities unless at risk
>responsible risk taking is regarded as normal
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what are working practices and children?
failures in care system led to inquiries and subsequent changes in practices, 2002 DBS checks became mandatory, Children Act 2004 created roles&organisations with specific responsibility for child welfare
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Card 2


what is the role of a specialist doctor?


expert training in particular area, hospitals and clinics
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>liaise with other professionals
>contribute to teams for ongoing care

Card 3


what is the role of a nurse?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what is the role of a midwife?


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Card 5


what is the role of a healthcare assistant?


Preview of the front of card 5
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