• Created by: Hope6104
  • Created on: 04-01-20 10:43

Havinghurt's activity theory

Havinghurst proposed that successful ageing occurs when older people stay active and maintain social interactions. We can see this theory in practical ways almost everyday. Most people who continue to be active and engaged in their community in some way are typically happier and healthier that those who are not. This is because there is a connection between the person and the world around them. 

Advantages-They will stay competent for longer, offers companionship, sense of belonging

Disadvantages- Overlooks inequality, economic factors, activity needs to be fulfilling 

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Social disengagement theory

Cummings and Henry proposed that as people age, they have a withdrawl from interactions and relationships to the various systems of which they belonged. The theory states that this withdrawl is inevitible and mutual. It is one of three psychological theories describing the development process of individuals as they age. The other two theories are the activity theory and the Continuity Theory of ageing. 

factors that limit social interaction- Ill health, Geographical mobility, Retirment, Ill health of friends and family

Advantages- Creates awareness of isolation, stepping down gives way for the younger generation, prepare themselves for isolation

Disadvantages- No concept of individual circumstances, out of date focuses on central roles (man being provider), can't be tested with empirical research

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Bowlby's theory of attachment

Bowlby's theory suggests that a child is born with programming that helps them to form an attachment to others. Bowlby suggests that this is an evolutionary trait that is formed to help children be able to survive. In his attachment theory, Bowlby believed that attachment behaviours are instinctive. They become activated whenever a trigger is present. actions or feelings such as fear, seperation, or insecurity. 

3 months- Baby responds to any caregiver

3-7 months- Infant can distinguish main caregiver from others but will accept care from others

7-9 months- Formed an attachment to primary caregiver, upset when seperated from them

9+ months- Becomes more independant and forms multiple attachments

Problems with attachment- premature, Disability, post natal depression, adoption, emotional unavailability, seperation 

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Bowlby's theory of attachment theory (continued)

Advantages- the theory was representative of the culture of the time, the maternal deprivation hypothosis has had an impact on how we treat children.

Disadvantages- no gene that controls attachment suggesting it isn't innate, can be more beneficial having a network od attachments to support infants and their social/ emotional needs.

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Bandura's social learning theory

Bandura’s theory believes that children learn and mimic others through observation, and modelling. 

Groups in Bandura's social learning theory 

Part 1- In one room the adult shows aggression towards a doll infront of 24 children with similar aggression ratings.

Part 2- The same is done again but instead the adult shows non agressive behaviour to the doll.

Part 3- No adult interacts with the doll.

Advantages- Accurate picture explaining how behaviour is learned, Explains a large number of behaviours, explais the role of social influence from media, peers and parents

Disadvantages- Doesn't take into account physical and mental changes (reward and punishment), doesn't explain all behaviour 

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Gesell maturation theory

First introduced in 1925, Gesell offered a maturation theory of child development which focuses on the course, pattern, and rate of growth that is expected in both normal and exceptional children. Gesell believed that the growth and development of children was influenced by their genetics and their environment, but with the child’s psychological development being the primary driver.

Advantages- Theory is still used today by health care professionals.

Disadvantages- Ignores special needs, Based around middle class socioeconomic status, Education not taken into account.

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Piaget's cognitive development theory

According to Piaget, there are four stages of cognitive development a child passes through, these stages include.

Sensorimotor stage- During this stage, infants are developing their sensory motor skills and cogntion.

Properational stage- During this stage toddlers and young children are devloping preoperational abilities, such as the ability to recognise and understand symbols.

Concrete operational stage- During this stage, children from the age of 7-11 are learning logical skills. Around the age of 11, children begin to understand abstract concepts. However during this stage children can't perform reflective exercises. They can't have a realistic picture of their future. They also have a hard time undersatnding another persons point of view.

Formal operational stage- During this stage, children from the age of 11 to proximately 15-20 are starting to think logically and to comprehend abstract propositions. they also become concerned about their future and start to form an image in their mind.

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Piaget's schema theory

A schema is a description of both the mental and physical actions required in understanding and knowing. It's a category of knowledge used in interpreting and understanding the world. Schemas provide a way to organise knowledge, creating units of objects, actions and abstract concepts.  

Assimilation- When recieving new information regarding exsiting schema you will use your pre existing schema to make sense of it.

Equilibrium- develops a concept of the world around them 

Disequilibrium- Experience situations that disturb their schema 

Accomodation- The existing schema does not work when trying to make sense of the new knowledge, so needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation.

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Genetic disorders

Types of genetic disorders-

Gene Mutation- A permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene, so that the sequence differs from what is found in most people.

Genetic Disorder- Genetic disorders are caused by mutations in genes on the x chromosome (one of the two sex cells). 

Recessive Genetic Disorder- Two copies of the abnormal gene must be present in order for the disease or trait to develop.  

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Types of genetic disorders: Huntington's Disease

Huntington's disease is a condition that stops parts of the brain working properly over time. it is a recessive genetic disorder. It gets gradually worse over time and is usually fatal after a period of up to 20 years. 


  •  Difficulty concentrating and memory lapses 
  •  Depression 
  •  Involutary moving and jerking 
  •  Mood swings and personality changes 
  •  Problems swallowing, speaking and breathing


  •  Medicine for depression and muscle spasms 
  • Speech and language therapy
  •  Physiotherapy 
  • End of life care
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Types of genetic disorders: Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis is a recessive genetic disorder that causes sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive system. This causes lung infections and problems with digesting food. 


  •  Recurring chest infections
  • Wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and damage to airways (Bronchitis)
  •  Difficulty putting on weight and growing
  •  Jaundice


  • Physiotherapy 
  •  Druf to thin mucus 
  • Antibiotics to prevent infection
  • Lung transplant
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Types of genetic disorders: Klinfelter syndrome

Klinfelter Syndrome is a genetic disorder where boys and men are born with an extra X chromosome. Usually a female baby has 2 X chromosomes (**) and a male has 1 X and 1 Y (XY). But in Klinfelter syndrome, a boy is born with an extra copy of the X chromosome (**Y). 


  • In babies: Walking and talking can be delayed 
  • In children: Shyness and low self-confidence, dyslexia 
  • In teenagers: Growing taller than expected, slower muscle growth, more female attributes
  • In adulthood- Infertility, low sex drive, different physical characteristics


  •  Testosterone replacement therapy
  •  Speech and language therapy 
  •  Physiotherapy 
  •  Fertility treatment 
  •  Behavioural support in school
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Types of genetic disorders: Brittle Bone Disease

Brittle Bone Disease is a genetic mutation and a recessive genetic disorder that causes the bones to break very easily as the collagen in the bone is of poor quality. This means the bones become weak and liable to fractures. 


  •  Broken bones 
  •  Bleeding and easy bruising 
  •  Bowing of legs 
  •  Brittle discoloured teeth 
  •  Short height 
  •  Weak muscles and tissues 


  •  Splints and casts for broken bones 
  •  medicine to strengthen bones 
  •  Implants to support bones 
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Types of genetic disorders: Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular Dystrophy is a recessive genetic disorder that gradually cause the muscles and skeletal srtucture to weaken, leading to an incresing level of disability. Muscular dystrophy is a progressive condition. It often begins by affecting a particular group of muscles, before affecting the muscles more widely.   


  • Progressive muscle weakness
  • Difficulty walking, jumping, running
  • Muscle pain and stiffness
  • Inability to relax muscles


  •  Medication to slow down muscle weakness and improve strength 
  •  Surgery to treat complications 
  •  Therapy 
  •  Protein rich diet
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Types of genetic disorders: Phenylketonuria

Phenylketonuria is a recessive genetic disorder that stops individuals from being able to break down the amino acid phenylalaine, which then builds up in the blood and brain. This can lead to brain damage.


  •  Behavioural difficulties 
  • Fairer skin, hair and eyes compared to siblings without condition
  •  Epilepsy
  •  Tremors 
  •  Sickness


  •  Diets that avoid foods high in protein and Aspartame
  •  Blood tests 
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Types of genetic disorders: Colour Blindness

Colour Vision Deficiency (Colour Blindness) is a recessive genetic disorder. Light sensitive cells in the retina don't work which change the way colour is perceived. Most people have difficulty distinguishing between shades of red, yellow and green. 


  • Tell school so learning materials can be adapted accordingly 
  •  Asking for help when colour differentiation struggles occur
  •  Tinted lenses 
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Types of genetic disorders: Down Syndrome

Down Syndrome is a gene mutation caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21. It is usually associated with physical growth delays, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features.


  •  Almond shaped eyes
  •  Flatter face
  •  Smaller ears
  •  Large tongue
  •  One creased palms 
  •  Heart Conditions 


  •  School support
  • Medical treatment (heart and eyes)
  • Speech therapy 
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Stages of play

Jean Piaget believed that there were four stages of intellectual development which mature or 'unfold' during the early stages of the lifespan.

Sensorimotor (0-2)- Infants think by interacting with the world through their senses e.g taste, texture, sound, smell

Pre-operational (2-7)- Children use symbols to represent their earlier sensorimotor discoveries. Development of language and make-believe play takes place. they have no understanding of mass or volume.

Concrete operational (7-11)- Children's reasoning becomes logical providing the issues are concrete. In the concrete operational stage, children may be able to understand simple logical principles but only if it's concrete, not abstract e.g simple arithmetic.

Formal operational (11-18)- Adolescents begin using abstract thinking, they don't refer to objects in the real world. young people can now think of possible outcomes, not just obvious ones. 

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Types of play: Cognitive Development

Solitry (0-2)- Plays alone with a range of toys and activites.

Parallel (2-3)- Play alongside one another but not together.

Simple co-operative (3-5)- Begin to join in different activities and begin to share and take turns.

Complex co-operative (5+)- Make games and organise themselves. 

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Parenting styles

Parenting styles that contribute to child development-

Authoritive- Parents aren't overly strict, children are brought up to respect authority and develop appropriate values and boundaries. Children are resilient and conform to the social norms of society.

Authoritarian- Parents have high expectations often overwhelming their children. Children are rebelious, problematic in the home and in society.

Permissive- Parents make few demands and may be reluctant to implement rules or values. Children lack self control, they have no understanding of personal space, might struggle to manage relationships and responsibilities.  

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Types of low income individuals- Single parent, Unemployed, Older people, Sick and disabled, Single earner families, Unskilled workers

Enviromental and social factors affecting poverty

Pollution- Respiratory disorders, cardivascular problems and allergies

Housing- Hypothermia, anxiety and depression

Parenting- Stess positive/negative 

Access to care- Barriers to health and social care

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Chomsky's language acquisition theory

Chomsky's believed that all individuals are born with a language acquisition device (LAD). LAD's enable children to recognise and developthe languages they experience. He said that children are 'pre-programmed' to acquire language and that it evolves naturally in the same way that children have the ability to stand and walk.

He also said that language develops because of maturation, the unfolding of the individual's biological potential, and that a child cannot learn language through imitation alone because the grammer and syntax of language around is often highly irregular e.g adults use slang. Chomsky noted that even if adults around the child use correct grammer, the child will continie to pluralise words e.g saying Gooses instead of Geese. He applied this theory to all languages.

Advantages- Rate of development tends to be similar, correct language when surrounded by faulty adult-speech.

Disadvatages- Over generalised e.g doesn't take into account children with special needs, Children deprived of social contact can't achieve complete effective communicative experience.

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Object permanence, conservation, egocentrism, abst

Object Permanence- Awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived (learned by 8 months),

Conservation- Principle that quantity reamins the same depsite change in shape (learned by 4-5).

Egocentrism- learning to take another's point of view (learned by 2-3).

Abstract thinking- Hypothetical situations, cause and effect, making predictions (learned by 11-16).

examples of stages

  •  Test of conservation: water experiment
  •  Egocentrism test: mountains experiment 
  •  Object permanence test: Peek-a-boo
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COSHH and RIDDOR are a set of regulations tha control hazardous substances and allow an organisation to report any serious injuries that occur. COSHH stands for Control of Substances Hazardous to Health, RIDDOR stand for Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurences Regulations

COSHH legislates for dangerous chemicals, materials and substances that pose a large risk to someones health. it covers:

  • Corrosive chemicals
  • Flammable chemicals 
  • toxic gasses 

RIDDOR is a set of regulations that allow individuals to report accidents. The types of accident that an organisation can report include:

  • deaths and injuries 
  • diseases
  • specified injuries (non-fatal injuries) 
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