Topic 5: Religion in a global context

Nanda- Hinduism and Consumerism
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Reading- Capitalism in East Asia
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Berger- Pentecostalism in Latin America
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Giddens-Fundamentalism and Cosmoplitanism
Fundamentalists are traditionalists who want to return to basics of their faith, believe in literal truth of scriptures . Cosmopolitanism is embracing modernity, tolerant of other views , emphasis on spiritual and self-improvement.
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fundamentalism is a response to living in postmodernity. Postmodernity brings freedom of choice, uncertainty and a awareness of risk. Some embrace freedom others are attracted to fundamentalism
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Castells- 2 responses to postmoderinty
1. Resistant identity- a defensive reaction of those who feel threatened and retreat into fundamentalist communities. 2. Project identity- response of those who are forward-looking and engage with social movements eg feminism
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Beckford- criticises Giddens, Bauman and Castelles
They distinguish too sharply between cosmopolitanism and fundamentalism, ignoring 'hybrid' movements.
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Beckford- criticises Giddens, Bauman and Castelles
They are 'fixed fundamentalism' ignoring other important developments eg globalisation
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Beckford- criticises Giddens, Bauman and Castelles
Giddens lumps all types of fundamentalism together ignoring important differences between them.
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Beckford- criticises Giddens, Bauman and Castelles
Giddens' description of fundamentalism as a defensive reaction to modernity ignores the fact that reinventing tradition is also modern activity.
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we should not focus narrowly on the idea that Islamic fundamentalism is a reaction against globalisation.
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main cause of fundamentalism is the perception of religious traditionalists today's globalising world threatens their beliefs and lifestyle.
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Bruce- In the West
Fundamentalism is the reaction to change taking place within society
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Bruce- In the Third World
Fundamentalism is usually a reaction to change being thrust upon a society from outside for example in the case of the Islamic revolution in Iran.
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Jackson- critisises Huntington
sees Huntingtons work as an example of orientalism- a western ideology that stereotypes Eastern nation and people as untrustworthy
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Casanova- criticises Huntington
Huntington ignores important religious divisions within the 'civilisations' he identifies e.g Sunni and Shi'a Islam
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Horrie and Chippindale- criticises the 'clash of civilisations'
The 'clash of civilisation' as a grossly misleading neo-conservation ideology that portrays the whole of Islam as an enemy. In reality only a tiny minority of the world's 1.5 billion Muslims are remotely interested in a 'holy war' against the West
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hostility towards the West does not stem from fundamentalists islam but is a reaction to Western foreign policy in the MIddle East. The West has popped up oppressive regimes and continues to support Israel despite it aggressive treatment of Palestin
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Inglehart and Norris
issues that divide the West from Muslim world is not democracy but sexuality.
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Reading- Capitalism in East Asia



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Berger- Pentecostalism in Latin America


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Giddens-Fundamentalism and Cosmoplitanism


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