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Believing Without Belonging: Davie
Religion is not declining but it taking a more privatised form
People no longer attend church as it isn't seen as socially acceptable but rather a matter of
choice, believing without belonging…read more

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Voas & Crockett: Evidence from British Social Attitudes from 1983 to 2000 shows both
church attendance and belief in God were declining
Bruce: If people aren't willing to invest time in going to church, this just reflects the
declining strength of their beliefs…read more

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Spiritual Shopping: Leger
There has been a dramatic decline in institutional religion in Europe
This is due to cultural amnesia, or loss of collective memory
Children are no longer socialized into the church, at the same time the trend towards
social equality has undermined the traditional power of the church to impose religion
Instead, individual consumerism has replaced collective tradition
Religion is now individualised and we can become spiritual shoppers
Thus, religion is now a personal spiritual journey in which we chose which elements to
Leger argues there are now two types of religion emerging
Pilgrims: follow an individual path for self-discovery. The demand is created by today's
emphasis on personal development
Converts: Religious groups that offer a strong sense of belonging. They re-create a sense of
community e.g. Evangelical movements…read more

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Jesus In Disneyland: Lyon ­ Relocation Of
Agrees with Davie that believing without belonging is becoming increasingly popular
Traditional religion is giving way to new forms of belief
Globalisation has led to increased movements of ideas and beliefs across national
These ideas have become `disembedded' from their original context and moved to a
different place and time
Lyon describes a Harvest Day Crusade held not in a church, but at Disneyland ­ an example
of how the boundaries between different areas of social life have become blurred in
postmodern society…read more

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Jesus In Disneyland: Lyon ­ Religious
Postmodern society also involves the growth of consumerism, and the idea that we now get
to construct our identities
In religion, we act as `spiritual shoppers' choosing beliefs and practices that suit our needs
In Lyons view, religion has moved to the sphere of consumption
While people not longer belong to a religious organisation, they have not abandoned their
Instead, they have become `religious consumers', making choices about which elements of
religion they find useful
Ammerman: Study of the American Christian fundamentalists found that they used a
number of churches without giving strong loyalty to a particular one…read more

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