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God And Globalisation In India: Nanda
Globalisation has created a huge, prosperous, scientifically educated urban class in India who
work in sectors closely linked to globalisation
Secularisation theory predicts these people will be the first to abandon religion
Yet, many still believe in the supernatural
Centre for the Study of Developing Societies: Only 5% said they felt their religiosity had
declined, 30% had become more religious
This ambivalence steams from a tension between traditional belief in renunciation of worldly
desires and the newfound prosperity of the middle class
This is resolved by turning to modern holy men, tele-gurus who preach the message that desire
is not bad
They also dispense business-friendly versions of Hinduism teaching that consumerism can be
`spirituality balanced' by paying for rituals
Modern versions of Hinduism therefore, legitimate the position of the middle class and allow
them to adjust to globalisation consumer capitalism…read more

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Hindu Ultra-nationalism: Nanda
Pew Global Attitude Survey: 93% of Indians agreed with the statement that `Our people are
not perfect, but our culture is superior to others'
Nanda notes that India's success in the global market is increasingly attributed to the
superiority of `Hindu values'
In this Hindu ultra-nationalism, the worship of Hindu gods has become the same as worshipping
the nation of India
Hinduism has also become part of everyday life, the secular state is increasingly influenced by
religion
In education, `Hindu sciences' such as astrology are being taught a an academic subject
The Ministry of Defence is sponsoring researching and development of weapons with magical
powers…read more

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Capitalism In East Asia
The `East Asian trigger economies' e.g. South Korea, have successfully industrialised and
become significant players in the global market
This success has led some sociologists to argue that religion has played a role similar to the
one Calvinism played
Gordon Redding:
Describes the spirit of capitalism among Chinese entrepreneurs
He sees their `post-Confucian' values encouraging hard work, self-discipline and self-
improvement
The effect is similar to that of the Calvinists…read more

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Pentecostalism In Latin America: Berger
Pentecostalism in L.A acts as a `functional equivalent' to the Western Protestant ethic
It encourages the development of Capitalism in the same way a Calvinism
L.A Pentecostalists embrace a work-ethic and lifestyle similar to the Calvinist
Thus, encourages its members to prosper and become upwardly mobile
He agrees with Weber that something like Pentecostalism is necessary to promote economic
development and raise society out of poverty
This process can be led by an active minority
However, he undermines Weber's point that religious ideas alone are not enough to produce
economic development ­ natural resources are also needed
For example, while Pentecostalism has growth in northern Brazil , the region lacks resources
and remains backwards…read more

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Pentecostalism: Global And Local - Lehmann
Christianity has globalised itself and expanded out of Europe
Lehman distinguishes between two phrases in this expansion;
1. Christianity accompanied colonisation and was imposed on the native people, often forcibly
suppressing local religions
2. Over the last century or so, it has spread because it gained a popular following from below e.
g. in 2000 there were 80million Pentecostlists in Brazil alone
He attributes its success as part of its ability to `plug into' an incorporate local beliefs and
symbols
Pentecostalism simply replaces existing local beliefs
Pentecostalism has also been successful in developing countries as it is able to appeal to the
poor who make up the vast majority of the population
As well, it makes use of global communications media to spread its message alone with `road
shows' and world tours by `celebrity' preachers…read more

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