The Structures of Everyday Life

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Where can changes in the structure of everyday life be seen most notably?
1642 and during the Reformation
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What scale does Braudel argue that change was primarily on?
Middle term change - events, changes over generations, changes within the strucure of the
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Braudel - Events
In his view less important
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Braudel - Changes over generations
May seem unchanging but historians can see change over time (social history)
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Braudel - Changes within the structure of the economy etc
Feudalism to capitalism for example
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What was one of the determining factors to the structure of everyday life?
Patriarchy
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What does patriarchy represent?
'the government of the fathers' - of adult male householders
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Which men lack the power that the patriarchy could provide?
Men who moved around for work and are without the capital to own their own home
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Who were supposed to show absolute power?
Most adult propertied males
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Who, in 1622, said "he is as a king in his owne house"?
William Gouge
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Divine right
Absolutism, political power is concentrated in the hands of monarch who gives it to groups such as Parliament as a 'gift'
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When was divine right questioned?
English Civil War
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What levels of Braudel's thoughts would divine right occupy?
Surface level in one respect (political intrigue as event) but also important in the second level, social history
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What is one of the most intimate ways in which the higher levels were connected to ordinary people?
Patriarchy
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What did Robert Cleaver say on ideas of equality and inequality?
'as in a Citie, there is nothing more unequall, than that every man should be like equal: so it is not convenient, that in one house every man should be like and equall together"
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What did early modern England see rights embodied in?
'memory of the people' - not as an individual but as a househol
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What were the dominant ideas of the state?
Ordinary people born to a state of subordination so social inequality to be cherished
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What must be remembered about the fact that these were dominant ideas?
Ideas of the elites of the system and are not uncontested
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What did the Diggers want in 1649?
Equal distribution of land among the people
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By 1950 what was one group arguing?
Household was the location of an ungodly form of inequality and should be abolished
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Give examples of when the dominant ideas of the State were challenged
Early stages of the Reformation (1530s and 1540s) and during the English Revolution (1649-1660) period
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What was the enlightenment discourse that was forming at the end of the period, growing after?
Rights seen as key to the individual - can be seen for example in the UN Declaration of Human Rights after World War II
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What was there an increase of during the 16th and 17th centuries?
Number of people who were literate and semi-literate
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Using the evidence of signatures, in 1641 what proportion of women could sign their name?
Approximately 1 in 10 women
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Using the evidence of signatures, in 1641 what proportion of men could sign their name?
1 in 3 men
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Around 1641 what percentage of men in London could sign their name?
about 70%
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What does the increase in the proportion of people who could sign their own people signify?
Growth in literacy, semi-literate society
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What was one of the driving factors increasing literacy?
Printing press which originated in Germany in the 1440s or early 1450s
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When was the first printing press in England produced by William Caxton?
1475
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When was the printing press a mechanism used by the State to disseminate ideas?
By the 16th century
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What was significant about the Book of Homilies (1563)?
Required reading in the grammar schools (attended only by boys)
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What was significant about the Homily on Obedience (1547)?
Required by State to be read aloud by the ministers of the Church of England. Communicated orally at church, with church attendance mandatory. Ideas of patriarchy communicated through church
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How were localities connected to the political centre?
Through the printing press
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Give an example from the Homily on Obedience of threats caused by disorder
"no man shall sleep in his own house or bed unkilled, no man shall keep his wife, children and possessions in quietness"
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When had a 'Communist utopia' been established in Munster, Germany, lasting approximately a year before being crushed?
1534, during the German Reformation
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What were children seen to be born into?
State of nature that is inherently sinful
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Whose responsibility was it to deal with the inherently sinful state of children?
Grammar schools and heads of households
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What can be said about the household?
Unit of political socialisation, learn about ideals
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What was the expectation if a woman stepped out of line and her husband didn't beat her?
He would be seen as a shameful figure in the community
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What percentage of children died within the first two years of life?
25% to 1/3
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What did Lauren Stone argue about the high proportion of children who died in infancy?
Parents did not invest emotionally until they were older toddlers
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What did evidence in the 1980s say about Lauren Stone's claims on the death of children?
When children died families grieved and were traumatised
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What did Schofield show about child mortality?
Socially related but not socially specific; poor children more likely to die young
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Cambridge
Rich East Anglian market town and university town
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Derbyshire
Peak Country mining
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What was one of the dominant characteristics of English households from the 13th century (evidence available)?
Nuclear households
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What was the average household size?
4.75
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What did the average household size factor in?
High levels of child mortality during the early modern period -
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What was the consequence of high child mortality?
Young and middle aged women were likely to be pregnant for a large proportion of time
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What can be said about early modern households?
fluid (children, servants, apprentices, widows) and migratory (especially among the poor)
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Give an example of role of gossip networks
Derbyshire village of Chrych when a farmer was beating his wife too much (broken ribs etc) and women of village went to their husbands --> husbands set court case. Witnesses for farmer were generally more affluent and from outside village. Farmer los
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Why could women's agency lead to anxiety among men?
Idea that woemn could unpick the social order
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Who were particularly active in resisting attempts by officials to take goods or collect taxation?
Women
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Why were women particularly active in resisting taxation? (Garthine Walker)
Honour defined by willingness to defend it from those who would steal it; because of way social worth defined defending customary rights, household materials etc was "at once a material or symbolic act"
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Give an example of how the role of good housewife could be used to assert honour
1624 Margaret retorted at Anne Blanchard - "Dost thou cosine him now (when previously you have said) that he was born in a stable... thou idle huswife"
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What do women's depositions suggest about the use of the term 'idle huswife'?
Considered sufficient justification for verbal, physical and legal retaliation
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What did RA Houlbrooke argue about the position of women?
Women's position was "on the whole a subordinate one"
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What did widowhood and rules of succession give some individual women according to Houlbrooke?
"exceptional independence, power and authority"
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Did women have a large degree of share in administrative responsibilities at any level?
No
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What arguably helped facilitate the development of independent common opinions among women? (Houlbrooke)
Certain economic and social functions were largely reserved for them, bringing them together in larger groups
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Give an example of when the direct action of groups predominantly or wholly comprised of women breached the bounds of conventionally acceptable behaviour
Petitioning by London women of the Long Parliament and the Rump
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What must be remembered about any protest action by women in this period?
Most protests ere not feminist assertions of women's rights or interests against men but rather expressions of shared or common grievances
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Give an example of a woman who tried to take control of her own life
Lady Anne Clifford, who spent half her lfe fighting for inheritance, estate finally reverted to her in 1643 when cousin died with no male heir
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When Charles II's Secretary of State wrote to Lady Anne Clifford naming his candidate to one of her pocket boroughs how did she reply?
"I have been bullied by a usurper, I have been neglected by a court, but I will not be dictated to by a subject, your man shan't stand"
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What partially accounts for the increasing rebelliousness of aristocratic women in this period?
Legal position of women in respect of control of own property improved significantly in the Elizabethan and Jacobean period
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After childbearing what was the most important role of the wife?
Managing the household
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In what context did the management of the household most significantly bring women together?
Attendance of markets
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What was the significance of marriage for the ast majority of men and women in 1600s?
Indissoluble union and lifelong commitment
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Legal divorce
Length and costly process which discriminated against women
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Informal separations or desertions
Socially frowned upon and often economically disadvantageous
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As well as thousands of ballads printed by unlicensed presses, there were 3,000 titles registered between 1557 and 1709. What was one of the main topic areas of ballads?
Marriage
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What is clear about ballads?
Were distributed to a readership that was geographically widespread through 'country chapmen'
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While ballads were written primarily for amusement what may the laughter provoked have served as? (E Foyster)
Reinforcement of gender control
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Ballad humour is frequently didactic. How?
Warns readers or listeners that unless they accept their prescribed gender roles they themselves could become fools subject to
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What was one of the most serious causes of marital discord, as portrayed in seventeenth century ballads?
Adultery
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Why was adultery considered far worse when committed by women?
Because the wife who committed adultery affronted the patriarchal system of male dominance within the family and household
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Why did adultery by the wife violate the husband's property rights?
A wife was commonly believed to be the property of her husband
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While adultery by a husband could weaken the marriage by betraying marital fidelity what did it not do?
It did not threaten the theoretical order on which familial relationships were based
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What accounts for the numerical predominance of ballads which deal with female as opposed to male adultery?
Dual sexual standard
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The Patient Wife Betrayed is a ballad which does deal with adultery by a husband. What is significant about it though?
Narrative concentrates upon describing the 'wicked woman' who seduces the husband rather than upon the adulterous behaviour of the husband
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In some ballads, hidden, what is the reason that it is feared that women are committing adultery?
Because their husbands are not able to satisfy them sexually
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The Cooper of Norfolke (c. 1675) hen the brewer decides to visit the cooper's wife, intending to cure her 'green-sicknesse'
Green sickness was commonly thought to be an excess of 'seed' within a woman caused by lack of sexual activity
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What is the word cuckold derived from?
'Cuckoo' - a husband is cuckold if another man is stealing or laying his eggs
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Reconciliation devices in ballads between husbands and offending lovers often involve the transfer of money.Can this be the case?
Quaife's studies of court evidence show that in reality such an exchange of money took place. Dispute between two rivals settled once husband satisfied he has been compensated for loss of property.
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There were few channels for the formal expression of opinions or beliefs of groups of women. Give an example.
Courts of law - relying on various types of collective female testimony or verdict
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Purgation
Procedure by which someone charged with an offence in an ecclesiastical court could produce compugators who would swear that they believed the accused person's oath of innocence
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What was significant about compurgators?
Supposed to be of the same sex as the accused
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How many compurgators would be used?
2-3 to a dozen (very rare); sometimes people charged were unable to gather number needed
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In Chesham, Bucks in 1521 idea of compurgators reversed with forty women producing evidence of guilt.
Agnes Yve had been charged with being a common defamer of neighbours --> assigned penance
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What were panels of women used to determine?
Whether women were virgins and also paternity in the case of bastardity
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What was the aim of the use of women to determine virginity/paternity?
Dependent on judicial initiative and "basic aim was to discover the truth, not to give women the opportunity of voicing their own opinion"
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What is significant about the records of church courts?
While provide little information about litigants who initiated lawsuits, provide comprehensive profile of witnesses whose stories are the foundation of the study
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What can be said about witnesses in church courts?
Far more likely to be men than women
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Although in London women were far more likely to be called to witness than elsewhere, what percentage of London witnesses were women?
43%
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What percentage of witnesses in rural areas were women?
25%
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What was the correlation between the number of women suing sex and marriage cases and the proportion of female witnesses?
As number of women suing increased so did proportion of female witnesses
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By 1630-1640, only in what group were more than half witnesses female?
Witnesses aged under 5
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After the age of 60 proportion of female witnesses decreased. Why?
Older women just as likely to be source of trouble
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Give an example of a mark of discredit for female witnesses
'poor old woman'
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What must be remembered about the choice of witnesses?
Circumstantial as well as tactical - men were more likely to be present at marriage contracts (formal, authoritative witness may be necessary) while women more likely to witness defamation disputes
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Why were women more likely to witness defamation disputes/
Often took place in domestic or labour contexts that were predominantly female
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In a culture where contact with written texts was so limited what was significant about being a witness?
For most witnesses this was one of the few times that their words were likely to be written downU
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What percentage of witnesses in all marriage cases (1572-1640) at London consistory courts were male?
64%
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What percentage of witnesses at marriages sued by women (1572-1640) London consistory courts were men?
58.5%
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In London consistory court defamation cases 1572-1640 what percentage of witnesses were male?
53.5%
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At defamation cases sued by a woman what percentage of witnesses were male? (London consistory courts 1572-1640)
48%
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At defamation cases sued between women what percentage of witnesses at London consistory courts 1572-1640 were male?
40%
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According to Lawrence Stone what happened between 1660 and 1800, at a pace varying from class to class and family to family?
Remarkable change in accepted child-rearing theory
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Where was the new attitude to child-rearing first seen?
Midlde ranks, not so high as to be too preoccupied with pleasure or politics nor so low as to be too preoccupied by psheer survival
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What is the environmentalist view regarding children?
Born with a propensity towards neither good nor evil, but is a tabula rasa, malleable and open to being moulded by experience
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As early as 1628 the Anglican John Earle expressed the environmentalist view regarding children. What did he say?
"the child.... is the best copy of Adam before he tasted of Eve or the apple... He knows no evil"
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What did Locke say in the 1693 text Some Thoughts upon Education?
Argued tat education had to be a process adapted to growing capacities of child. At birth merely like an animal but treatment has to change as develop a will and conscience.
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What does Locke say about the role of a child?
"you shall have him your obedient subject (as is fit) whilst he is a child, and your affectionate friend when he is a man"
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What was the assumption made in political and social theory about family and sexuality?
Subordination of wives to husbands proided the model for all relatioships between women and men
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What did household heads have to do by law?
Ensure that their families came to church each Sunday, that children and servants were catechized and all obeyed Sabbath
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How could the requirements for household heads be difficult to comply with?
Young children, in an age before Sunday school, did not readily submit to Sunday discipline
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In 1560 what can be said about most families and most villages?
Corporate economic roles; family as locus of production and at least in arable villages teh open fields provided collectie economy
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What had undermined communal agriculture by 1725?
Enclosure and agricultural improvement
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What did the polarisation of wealth, the disappearance of the medium sized holdings and emergence of capitalist farms mean?
Increasing numbers of families did not work together but instead worked as wage labourers.
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When was the great age of witchcraft persecution in England?
1560-1640
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Why was parish discipline more subtle after 1660?
Great strains of the earlier period had disappeared and the authority of village notables was less explicitly challnenge
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How did William Perkins define a husband in 1590?
the husband is 'he that hath authority over the wife'
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What percentage of household was servants in survey of Cambridge households in 1620s?
20%
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What percentage of household was servants in survey of Peak mining households in 1641?
11%
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What percentage of household was apprentices in Cambridge households in 1620s?
18%
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What percentage of household was apprentices in Peak mining households in 1641?
0%
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What percentage of household was kin in Cambridge households in 1620s?
3%
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What percentage of household was kin in Peak mining households in 1641?
4%
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What percentage of household were lodgers in Cambridge in 1620?
21%
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What percentage of household were lodgers in Peak mining households in 1641?
7%
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What was significant about the low levels of kin in households?
Shows loose kin links
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What was significant about the concept of husband-murder as 'petty treason'?
If a husband was found guilty of the murder of his wife would be hanged for felony, a wife who murdered her husband would be burnt for petty treason - murdered the 'monarch' of household
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According to patriarchal theory every subject ought to have some relationship to an authority figure within household. When young men were sent to Oxford or Cambridge, who assumed authority over them?
The institutions in loco parentis (same with schools)
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While in common law married women's legal agency was vested in their husbands, what did ecclesiastical law allow?
Married women the right to litigate in their own names
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How could women's public assertiveness be most apparent?
Women's leadership of riots
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Who led grain riots in Maldon, Essex in 1629 demanding low prices for food and was hanged?
Captain Ann Carter
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Who led a sequence of enclosure riots in Nidderdale?
'Captain' Dorothy Dawson of Thorpe (Yorkshire)
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How did Dorothy Dawson justify her actions?
Reference to speech of her female neighbours that the 'wyves of Thorpe had done the like' in 1549 and had not been punished
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In spite of legal formalities what did many married women act as?
Independent businesswomen - one major Derbyshire lead mine in the 1630s called 'Gentlewomen's Grove' was exclusively owned by all female company
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Give an example of the important role of women in religious movements
Quaker women were notorious for their enthusiastic praying and prophesying
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On the everyday level where did plebeian women's sources of collectivity and self-confidence probably comefrom?
So-called gossip networks
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Gossip networks
Defame opponents, communicate important info about local custom, mitigate aspects of patriarchal authority (in the case of wife beating, shame the man)
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Of 6,000 witness testimonies recorded by London church court between 1570 and 1640 what percentage were given by women?
43%
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Between 1570 and 1640, the London church court heard 1,800 suits concerning sexual slander and marriage. What percentage had at least one female litigant?
85%
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What was male honour also built upon, as well as sexual behaviour?
Physical strength, local officeholding, social status, skill tc
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In the rhetorical construction of court proceedings, how does Gowing find that pamphlet literature on women's ideal behaviour has had some effect?
Women's descriptions of sex are constructed in a manner which is rather more guilty than that of men
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What have Gowing and other gender historians argued?
While examples can be found of women resisting exercise of patriarchal authority, or behaving in an assertive and public fashion, the gendered distribution of power limited many women's lives
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What are aspects of rural society?
Demography, life expectancy, pressure on reources
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In 1500 what was the population of England?
Between 2.5 and 3 million
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In 1500 what percentage of people lived in the countryside?
Around 88%
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What were the major changes in the period?
Growth of towns and cities, especially London, expansion of popilation
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By around 1650 what had the population nearly doubled to?
Around 5.5mn
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What was much of the sense of change that contemporaries could see by the end of the period due to?
Sense of change due to changes in rural economy
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What is significant to remember?
At beginning and end of period still reliant on horsepower. Was industrial in sense producing textiles etc but was not in the sense of Industrial Revolution
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Social polarisation
Emergence of agrarian capitalism, selling for market by yeomen farmers etc. The rich saw themselves as culturally separate from their poorer, baser neighbours
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What was the new language of class and social description?
New, more discriminate language - are either 'poor', 'middling', 'better', 'best' sort
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How was land distributed in Blakeney and Stiffkey (Norfolk) in 1586?
To entrepenurial types
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How would Blakeney and Stiffkey be described?
Agrarian capitalist societies
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Blakeney and Stiffkey were producing corn for market, where were they helping to feed?
Areas of Norfolk such as Norwich as well as expanding population of London
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As well as producing corn, what did people of Blakeney and Stiffkey do?
Sheep farming
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What happened to the goods produced by textile workers of Norwich?
Sent to Yarmouth and tehn sold in Low Countries
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What was the combined population of Blakeney and Stiffkey?
~500
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What was the population of Stiffkey?
200
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What was the population of Blakeney?
300
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Blakeney Haven - exports
Exporting wool to the Low Countries and grain to London and Norwich
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Blakeney Haven - imports
Coal from the Tyne, ships could stop at Blakeney on way to London
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How could Blakeney be described?
Small scale insular communities bonded by 'traffic' (people and goods)
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Who benefited from the traffic bonding small insular communities such as Blakeney?
Wealthy farming elite of Blakeney and Stiffkey
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Who was the wealthiest man in Stiffkey?
Nathaniel Bacon, knight and son of Sir Nicholas Bacon
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Nathaniel Bacon
Lived in a manor built in the 1570s; was better than his neighbours but still remained a part of local soceity
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Who was below Nathaniel Bacon?
Yeomen farmers (cash crops, sheep labourers)
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Who was below yeomen farmers?
Landless or near landless wage labourers
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Why did the poorer sort of people leave little trace?
Find some work and then might move on to towns and return to countryside in the summer
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Within what fixed radius of their home area did the more well off stay?
Usually within a five mile radius of home area
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How can the poorer sort be considered?
Agrarian proletariat wage labourers
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What became the dominant form of production in places such as Blakeney and Stiffkey?
Capitalism
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What must be remembered about England at this time?
Was not a peasant society - at this time in England the owrd peasant was an insult
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How was a peasant economy characterised?
People holding land for generations
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In this society, which areas especially were capitalist?
South and eastern England
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When was the climate relatively stable?
1000-1400 AD
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When was the Little Ice Age
15th to 17th centuries
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What was significant about the Little Ice Age?
Evidence of famine, increased demand for food, cash societies had increased inflation, political crises
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When did the population approximately halve, not recovering for centuries?
During the Black Death
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When did the population start to recover from the Black Death?
15th century
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When did the population increase rapidly?
16th and 17th centuries
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At the start of the period how could the economy be described?
Relatively inelastic, cannot cope with increased demands so wages decline in real terms
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England avoids a Malthusian trap, there had been increased productivity in the agricultural sector. What happened elsewhere?
In France in the late 1500s and early 1600s millions die
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Aside from isolated famines where, England does not experience famine
In the 1580s and 1590s in Cumberland and Westmorland
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Famine
Lack of food with food scarcity breaking social structures and leading to rapid population loss
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Malthusian trap
Named after political economist Thomas Robert Malthus - suggests that for most of human history income was largely stagnant b/c tech advances only resulted in more people not improved standards of living
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What can be said about food prices in the late 16th century?
England producing more food so although food prices high were not so high people dying in the streets
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Why was there a decline in food for the poor by the end of the 16th century?
Decline in household income in real terms
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How did contemporaries at the time of famine describe the poor?
"Naked"
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How can the poor at times of famine be described?
At the margins of starvation with intergenerational chronic malnutrition; poor leading markedly shorter lives w/ socially specfiic ortality
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What was one factor in the deterioration of living standards for the poor?
Enclosure of common land
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What were common rights to land under threat from?
Wealthier farmers who were enclosing land for food production
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By the middle off the 17th century England has escaped the Malthusian trap between limited resources and population. In the long term this was beneficial as more resources available. What did it mean for the poor in the last third of the 16th century
Life bad as common land closure meant the loss of the right to firewood or to dig coal, e.g. in the Midlands
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Why was the loss of the use of firewood from common land most dangerous for children?
Low levels of body fat so could freeze to deat
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Who gained from the period?
More affluent of e.g Blakeney and Stiffkey
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Who lost from the period?
Poorer people who appear for short time and then disappear from the archival record
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Alex Shepard researched people's sense of economic worth from mid 16th to mid 17th century. What did h find?
Yeomen estimated their economic worth at 11x more in 1650s than in 1550s
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When the increase in worth of yeomen is factored against inflation what does this show?
How they saw themselves as economically separate from poorer neighbours
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How did labourers estimate their worth?
1650s - 2x what ancestors worth
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When labourers estimates of wealth are factored against inflation what does this show?
Felt they were worth less than their ancestors
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What evidence did Alex Shepard use to discuss sense of worth?
Wealth discussed at church court in disputes between neighbours etc, had to give a sense of worth there
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What was the result of the growth in England's population?
Growing pressure on agricultural resources
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Why was the agricultural sector ultimately successful in feeding the growing population?
Increased crop yields, higher labour productivity and taking more land under cultivation
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What did taking more land under cultivation involve in corn producing areas?
Enclosure of common land and the creation of a class of poor wage-labourers, an agrarian proletariat
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Agrarian proleteriat
Highly migratory, shortened lives, vulnerable to harvest failure and falling real wages
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What can be said about the agrarian 'proleteriat' by the mid-seventeenth century?
Less likely to marry
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What do studies of villages in Essex and Cambridgeshire point to?
Declining number of smallholders as grain production became increasingly commercialised
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What happened to the number of smallholders in areas of pastoral farming?
Increased
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Pastoral farming
Dairy, sheep farming, cattle rearing
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What did many smallholders alternate smallscale farming with?
Industrial work ('proto-industry')
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Proto-industry
Mining coal lead or tin, weaving, production of goods such as cooking and eating utensils or cobbling
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What was there a gradual concentration of in some parts of industrial England, notably mining areas?
Productive units, controlled by merchants + the growth of waged labour
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England was not a 'pre-industrial economy'. How else should the early modern economy be described?
Commercialised, capitalist and increasingly industrialised
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In both pastoral-industrial and agrarian England there was growing social conflict between which groups?
Lord VS tenant, rich VS poor, settled inhabitants VS migrants
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Lord vs tenant
As lords tried to increase rents, enclose commons or drive people off the land in order to engage in commercial sheep farming
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Rich versus poor
Over poor relief, the extent of common rights upon the commons, the enclosure of the commons
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Settled inhabitants versus migrants
Over the right of newly arrived paupers to settle in a village and to marry
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What can be said about micropolitical struggles?
Had profound consequences for social relations, challenging perception of community, entitlement and belonging
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What could happen to those who were travelling around the country or region to find work?
Could be prosecuted as vagrants
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How did richer people increasingly see those who travelled for work?
Disorderly and dangerous
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Give examples of rights guaranteed under local custom that became increasingly controversial
Take fuel or food or building materials from the commons, glean after the harvest for scraps of corn, pasture cown on common
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What can be discerned in some communities, especially those in pastoral-industrial region?
Fierce sense of plebeian community
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What was plebeian community organised around?
Defence of customs, rights and local institutions against the gentry
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How were plebeian communities regarded by elites?
'Dark Corners of the Land' which required moral reformation
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Through contemporary parish literature it is estimated that of the 180 people living at Cogenhoe, Northamptonshire in 1628, how many had arrived since 1618?
94 (52%)
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In Clayworth what was the turnover of population from 1676 to 1688?
61.8%
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Where was Clayworth?
Nottinghamshire
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At Earls Cone how many of the 274 pieces of property listed in rental for two manors in 1677 had been in the same family since 1589?
23
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Was the average rate of turnover volatile?
No, 5% annually in Clayworth and Cogenhoe
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What can be said about most immigrants to Clayworth and Cogenhoe?
Probably immigrants from other villages in the area
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Where was Cogenhoe?
Northamptonshire
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What was a factor undermining any preconceptions about the stability of the Tudor or Stuart village?
Increased social stratification of the period
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What is important to remember about social stratification?
Affected some settlements earlier than others
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Where was marked social stratification not visible until the early eighteenth century?
Myddle and Wigston Magna
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Where was marked social stratification complete by the early seventeenth century?
Terling and Chippenham
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Where was there little evidence of social stratification in the period?
Willingham
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Why was there little evidence of social stratification in the period?
Peculiarities of the fenland economy permitted the survival of smallholdings
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How many tenants were there in Chippenham in 1544?
66
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How many of the 66 tenants of Chippenham were landless?
21 landless in 1544
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How many of the 66 tenants of Chippenham held less than two acres?
14 in 1544
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What is Chippenham a good example of?
A place where social stratification was relatively completed early
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How many of the 66 tenants of Chippenham held two or more acres but less than 50 acres?
21 in 1544
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How many of the 66 tenants of Chippenham in 1544 held over 50 acres?
10
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Did the land pattern remain the same in Chippenham between 1544 an 1712?
No it changed
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How many were landless in Chippenham in 1712?
31 landless
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How many held less than two acres in Chippenham in 1712?
5 held less than two acres
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In Chippenham in 1712 how was the remaining land held?
Between thirteen tenants, with nine holding the most
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In Chippenham in 1712 how many were farming large holdings of 50 acres or more?
Nine
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What was significant about farming holdings of 50 acres or more?
Would allow a family to survive the worst of bad harvests
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What was the percentage of rich villagers in Terling in 1524-5?
11.8%
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What was the percentage of rich villagers in Terling in 1671?
8.2%
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Where were the marked changes in the composition of Terling?
Middling sorts - earlier period had been 60.5% of taxpayers and by 1671 were 31% of those assessed
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By 1671, what percentage of people assessed in Terling were exempted from tax on grounds of poverty?
50.8%
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What do Keith Wrightson and David Levine argue about Terling?
Richer villagers were more likely to be literate and came increasingly to identify with the values of their social superiors rather than those of the village community
258 of 343
Was it merely an issue of rich or poor?
No - difference between respectable and rough as well
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What was unusual abut Terling?
Nature of social polarization and the godliness (thanks to active Puritan minister) of more substantial inhabitants
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By 1640 how much higher was the price of grain than mid 15th century level?
Nearly eight times
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What could be said about a middle aged man or woman in 1550?
Would see the price of grain triple over a lifetime
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How much did grain yields per acre increase between 1450 and 1650?
30%
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By when was England an exporter of grain?
Late seventeenth century
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In 1750, the record year, what percentage of national grain production was exported?
10%
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When were the northwestern English counties of Cumberland and Westmorland struck by famine?
1586-7, 1597 and 1623
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What contributed to the famines in Cumberland and Westmorland?
'Positive' Malthusian checks - population of region outstripped food supply
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Famine
Crisis of mortality caused by starvation and starvation related disease, crisis measusured by the increase in the number of deaths
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(Appleby) If the normal death rate n England around 1660 was 30 to 40 per thousand per year, a tripling of death rate meant 9 to 12 per cent of population died instead of usual 3-4%
Death rate Eng and Wales from 1918 influenza was three per thousand -shws how severe famine that carried off 10-20x
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What could be done in the south to deal with famine?
Everyday bread was coarse wheaten bread and could switch to lwoer priced grains such as rye, oats and barley
270 of 343
Why would the methods used in the south regarding famine not work in the north?
Little wheat grown and mainstay of diet was oats and barley
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What was significant about food price rises during the 1590s?
Relative increases in foodstuffs consumed by poor (e.g. oats, rye etc) were greater than increase in wheat during food shortage of 1596
272 of 343
Who are more vulnerable to starvation than adolescents or young adults?
Those over 45 and young chilren
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What can be said about the communities of Cumberland and Westmorland in the period?
Overwhelmingly agrarian communities
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What did the failure of the 1569 rebellion mark?
End of the efffective power of great magnates of border counties, leaders of hte uprising fled to Scotland
275 of 343
Who were the leaders of the rebellion of the northern earls?
Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland and Leonard Dacre
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What was the reason given to Privy Council in correspondence in 1580s and 1590s regarding 'decay' of armed men in north?
Tiny size of average holding - impoverished tenant could not afford horse or armour
277 of 343
West March
Westmorland and Cumberland
278 of 343
In 1580 how many horsemen were mustered by the West March?
520
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In 1552 how many horsemen were mustered by the West March?
580
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In the years 1587-8, 1597-8 and 1623 what happened to burials in many parishes of Westmorland nad Cumberland?
Rose two, three or four times the normal number
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What can be said about bubonic plague in the period?
pestilence of cities and towns that only occasionaly visited rural areas
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When did the crisis come in 1587-8 to Westmorland and Cumberland?
Winter months - not characteristic of plague, epidemilogist would suggest typhus.
283 of 343
What do Keith Wrightson and David Levine say about localism in Terling?
Significant weakening - centripetal forces gathered precedence. Local loyalties slowly gave way before increased participation of those of yeoman status and above in political and cultural life of the nation
284 of 343
What do Keith Wrightson and David Levine say about relationship between rich and poor in Terling?
Grew more differentiated, observable in terms of attitudes, education and manners. 'Those at the bottom of the social scale became not simply poor, but culturally different.'
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Where was the parish of Terling?
Central Essex, 38 miles from the city of London
286 of 343
What did the Lay Subsidy of 1524/5 show for Essex?
One of the richest counties in England
287 of 343
Within the half-hundred of Witham what can be said of Terling in 1524/5?
One of the wealthier villages in tersm of both ta yield and tax yield per taxpayer
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How many people in Terling paid the lay subsidy?
85 men and three widows,
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What does a comparison between the Hearth Tax of 1671 and Lay Subsidy show?
Absolute number of persons in higher bands expanded but lowest group had remarkable expansion (27.6% to 50.8%) - parish filled from the bottom
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What can be said about the living conditions of the middling sort?
Significant improvements
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What did the expansion of London require?
Building materials, arisans, fuel
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What was happening by the mid-16th century?
Significant amount of woodland in SE England cut down for London
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What was London increasingly dependent on?
Coal from the North East, so coal industry expanded on the river Tyne
294 of 343
The cartographer of Christopher Schwyter's 1595 map of Durgham exaggerated size of what?
Castle and cathedral - tension with Prince Bishops
295 of 343
Londinium c.50AD
By second centruy major settlement given autonomous rights by emperor; in third century AD had circumference of major efensive structures
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City - Urban polity
Specific rights independent of the countryside
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What did early modern cities go back to?
Roman idea that cities have their own independent governance - receipt of charter so receipt of political rights
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When did Norwich receive its charter?
14 th century, receiving autonomous rights of own
299 of 343
From mid-16th century suburbs emerging outside of cities; shanty towns erected by poor, esp migrants. Give example
East of city walls along Shoreditch, south of river in Suffolk
300 of 343
What was significant about suburbs?
Did not come under the authority of the city; political limits of city more or less old Roman walls
301 of 343
How much did the population of London increase by, reaching 200,000 by 1600?
Factor of 4
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From 1520 to 1700 population of London increased by a factor of what?
11
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In the 16th and early 17th centuries what was England's second city?
Norwich
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When was Norwich displaced as second city?
Bristol
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Why did Bristol displace Norwich in importance?
Slaving
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Norwich
Trading centre with the Low Countries
307 of 343
What can be said about Suffolk, south of the river Thames?
Existed since the 2nd century as a container of population
308 of 343
Records of Bridewell, London were analysed by Paul Griffiths. Whatdid he argue?
Despite packed with poor migrants authorities successful in controlling through harsh system of poor relief and vicious punishments
309 of 343
How does Griffiths say that London's population increase was contained?
Through harsh systems of poor relief
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Give example of harsh systems f poor control in London?
Vagrants lifted from streets by 'beadels' and whipped, set to work, some branded and then paraded through streets whipped and thrown out of city
311 of 343
By when were what we would call middle classes of London describing themselves as the 'middle sort of people'?
1550s-1560s
312 of 343
Give an example of when the middle sort of people became socially and politically assertive
1640s
313 of 343
What does Withington argue about the middling sort of people?
See themselves as citizens with rights of participation within urban polity, argues notion that is not a million miles away from modern ideas of political participaton
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What is the significance of the 17th century classical Banqueting House?
Close connection between Stuart royal authority and building --> so is significant that Charles I executed there
315 of 343
Until when was there an inscription blaming Catholics for the Great Fire of London?
1820s
316 of 343
When was Lonon the dominant financial centre?
Approx 1580s-1590s until inter war period
317 of 343
Where were the roots of neo-liberal global economy?
England and Low Countries
318 of 343
When was the Bank of England established?
1694
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What were the expansion of London, Bristol and to lesser extent Liverpool due to?
Slave trade
320 of 343
What is one description of the role of the slave trade in London?
'emergence of new Rome on the river banks based on the trade in human beings'
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In 1500 how could the British Isles be described?
Relatively poor, marginal and thinly urbanised
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By 1700 how could England be described, largely due to the expansion of agriculture?
One of the richest and most urbanised ountries in Europe, major trading nation
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What percentage of population lived in London in 1700?
11%
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What percentage of population lied in London in 1520?
2%
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Where was population growth in London most marked?
Within the suburbs of the City f London
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What can be said about both the countryside and London?
Areas where population expanded most rapidly tended to be much poorre than other areas
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Why did population in London increase despite high rates of mortality?
Constant in-migration
328 of 343
Growth of London - Agriculture
Large area of the south and east turned over to grain production to feed the expanding population of the capital
329 of 343
Growth of London- Regional towns
Small market centres to cope with trade network. Newcastle (coal) from 4,000 in 1520s to 16,000 by 1690s
330 of 343
Growth of London - Industry
Coal mining stimulated by London's fuel needs; demands for building materials and household goods expanded proto-industry
331 of 343
Where were literary levels higher?
Urban areas
332 of 343
Why did urban populations tend to be younger?
In migratin
333 of 343
How was Southwark described in the 1590s?
'nurseries and seminary places of the begging poor that swarm within the city'
334 of 343
Why did poor industrial workers tend to be found within suburbs?
Restriction of guilds - suburbs lay outside of the jurisdiction of both cities and guilds
335 of 343
What do historians such as M.Power argue bout London and other major cities such as Norwich and York?
'Crisis' in 1590s as urban populations increased dramatically at a time of high grain prices
336 of 343
What was the number of poor young people punished as vagrants in London Bridewell in 1560-1?
69
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What was the number of poor young people punished as vagrants in London Bridewell in 1624-5?
815
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What was the role of Norwich Bridewell?
Young people who were found 'out of hand and out of service' were incarcerated
339 of 343
What can be said about the increased number of prosecutions of vagrants?
May have mirrored the fears of the urban elite as much as demonstrating a real urbn criss
340 of 343
What did V. Pearl argue was central to the maintenace of order in hte face of crisis in the 1590s?
Involvement of male heads f middling households was central in local urban government and maintaining order
341 of 343
Who do Gowing argue experienced the crisis of the 1590s the worst?
Young women - subject to restriction by guilds and city authorities and had their sexual and moral conduct subject to scrutiny, censure and punishment
342 of 343
Why has P. Borsay characterised post-Restoration urban history as that of an 'urban renaissance'?
Urban landscapes were 'improved' and 'beautified'; cities such as Bath became centres for display of 'polite culture; Palladian architecture
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