Ref to Rev- Nobility

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 15-04-17 18:55
What is the problem with definition nobility?
Contemporaries have different views of this definition
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What does kamen argue nobility refers to in Europe?
Refers to the entire status elite but imprecise,
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What term was accepted as referring to a 'true noble' and what does it mean?
'Gentleman'- One that is born such and not create,
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In rural area of Western Europe, what term was representative of the old nobility?
A knight or chevalier
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Did most nobles have titles?
Titles were rare- A mark of state favour rather than a guarantee of old nobility,
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What are the four main attributes of nobility?
1) Lineage, 2) Land, 3) Political authority 4)military leaders
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For linage/ the blood line, nobles should be descendent from what?
Noble blood
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Some argues nobles were descendant from a different blood to who?
Different from ordinary common people, emphasising idea of purity of noble blood
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How should this purity be kept?
Families were conscious to ensure their children would marry another Noble family
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What concepts does Kamen argue gave everyday substance to the nobility?
Broad range of social attitudes around 'reputation' and 'honour'
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What does kamen argue are the three types of honour did a noble need to cherish?
1) The purity of his past linage, 2) A noble had to demonstrate his personal achievement e.g.Military service, 3) Publicly maintain his correct social role and winning the respect of the community,
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Many writers pointed out nobility should be based on what?
Virtue and merit,
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For land, how did this link to the nobility's wealth and what did it include,
It was the backbone of their wealth, including large land and an estate
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Land wasn't just a source of wealth but it also gave them what?
Status
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How much land was owned by the nobility in Denmark in 1780?
85%
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How much land was owned by the nobility in Spain in 1800?
52%
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How much land was owned by the nobility in Sweden in 1700?
33%
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Land carries with it the exercise of power- what powers?
Led to legal privileges and rights and representation in courts,
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What two main sources was cash created?
Rent of land and houses and court pensions,
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In England, how coud the gentry remain wealthy and obtain cash?
Gentry recieved land in gifts or on lease from dissolved monasteries and obtained cash and secured trade privileges, tax-farms and monopolies,
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What could rising expenses be blamed on?
Inflation
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How could inflation involve unforeseen costs and dowry payments which could be crippling?
The cost of food, building, clothes and luxuries were rising,
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By the 17th century, what does Kamen claim aristocracy's wealth was?
he argues there were complaints of aristocratic poverty were universal,
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Did economic difficulties of aristocracy apply to all of Europe?
Not to eastern Europe- The feudal landed structure which led to different problems,
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kamen argues land was both the conserver and solvent of society. Why?
It preserved the elite and also gave opportunities for wealth and social mobility,
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For exercise of political authority, what institutions could they sit in and an example?
Sit in representative institutions e.g. House of Lords
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What was their role to the King?
King's Councillors
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When Nobles rebel, what is often the belief about why?
Often the belief the King is ignoring their opinions and their power
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Where was most of noble's power inherently located which meant they were at a disadvantage for what?
-Inherently local rather than nation, -Disadvantage when intervening in state affairs,
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In their own provinces, how does Kamen argue elites were percieved?
AS little Kings,
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However he argues as this power decline, what stopped this based on families?
Links between families, based on family and other interests, created a network of 'patronage' systems,
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In France, who would the great nobles first call on, and then next and then last?
First- His own household, 2- Those who were paid to serve him as soldiers 3) Finally the many officials who were connected to his estate,
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What were many noble links based on rather than feual or material obligation?
Based on friendship and personal commitment based on honour
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What system does Kamen argue served principally to help elites maintain power?
System of clientage
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For military leaders, how was military prowness link to nobles?
The idea nobles should fight,
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Why can Nobles only be knights on horseback?
As they had the skill to ride and fight as well as own a horse,
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Did Nobles fight in battle or did others fight for them?
Nobles may or may not have fought in battles, but they often had their own private armies which the King could also use during large scale wars,
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Kamen argues that an increase in those rewarded with noble titles was caused by what?
Wars of the late 15th century
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By the mid-17th century, how did the older aristocracy view military ideals?
The older aristocracy were beginning to lose their taste for the military ideals they had once cherished
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For other traditional noble attributes, what did they have to protect?
Protection of noble honour e.g. duels
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What was their dress code, especially in paintings?
Very extravagant dress code and portraits- depicts lace, silk and other expensive materials,
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What type of appropriate life style did they have?
Ostentatious display and consumption, hospitality and charity,
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What is another noble attribute Kamen argues?
Nobility in business
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How did nobles dominate sources of wealth?
They owned estates, forests, coastline etc. They had large economic power,
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Who in 1579 distinguished four types of nobles- what are they?
-Thomas Churchyard, -Governing elite, soldiers, the lawyers and the merchants
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What were the two main influences that help break prejudices against nobles in business?
1)Strong wish for the self-made elite to continue to commerce even after having gained status, 2)Wish of the state to divert the considerable wealth of nobles into trade,
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Does Kamen argue a significant number of nobility were active in business, including what?
Yes over the whole of Europe, -Trade,
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In Swedne, what were nobles more prominent on from the 16th century?
Prominent as entrepreneurs
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In Germany, what did nobles do in business?
Some monopolised both industry and trade,
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In Hungary, what did Nobles do in the business world?
The nobles dominated the trade in agricultural goods,
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In Russia, who was the biggest Russian businessman and how?
Biggest of Russian businessman, with profitable interests in both trade and industry
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However, in contrast of Kamen, what is the traditional idea of nobility based on trade?
Traditional idea that they avoid any economic function e.g. trade,
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Why weren't they expected to work? What could happen if they did work?
-Due to their inherited wealth, -They could be removed from the noble circle,
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What was being removed from the noble circle called? Where particularly did this occur?
'Derogation' -Especially in France and Spain
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What does Bitton argue derogeance theory is?
Provided that a nobleman who participated in activities that deemed incompatible with nobility would suffer derogation of his privileged status
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For example in 1435, what did Charles VII do to prove this?
He refused to exempt from taxation nobles who sold their wines in taverns,
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What royal ordinance was introduced in 1560 based on this?
Royal ordinance included a clause that forbade nobles to engage in the traffic of goods,
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How long did this rule remain in effect?
For mroe than half a century
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However, when were some open to commercial activities with Nobles?
1560s onwards
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What was often the motive of allowing this?
To avoid the "ruin and destruction of noble houses"
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For nobility: fact vs fiction, for natural wastage, what inheritance order did nobillity follow?
Both Primogeniture/ partible inheritance
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Generally how many generations would the French nobility last for due to the male linage?
3-4 generations,
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If there were 63 huge families, around 100 years later how many families remain after having male role models?
Only 21
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For fact v fiction for wealth, in some areas such as Naples, describe hwo noble families could be?
There were many poor noble families- 1/3 in 1600 in Naples were too poor to remain in their Noble status
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For fact v fiction for the military code, how did warfare begin to change in this period?
In the 17th century, there are national armies and allegiance to a lord
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For fact v fiction for honour code, what does the state demand?
A 'monopoly of violence'
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Therefore, due to all this, what do some argue was happening to the nobility?
that it was in decline, but this isn't necessarily the case-
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Give two examples of greater fluidity of the roles of the nobility?
1) Absorption of new members (nobility bus), 2)Antagonism
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How might people become a noble?
perhaps due to a service a commoner has done for the King, raising money for them,
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In some areas of Europe, how was it possible to gain a noble status and how many did this?
Possible to buy noble status- There were over 5000 families who did this,
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For antagonism, what is the first noble role available based on the military?
1) Noblesse d'epee (nobility of the tword)- Traditional noble status
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What is the last noble title based on the office?
Noblesses de la Robe (nobility of the gown, or office)
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However, what does Bitton argue are the three factors that undermined the economic position of the nobility from the Hundreds Years' War to mid 17th century?
1) Long secular price rise, 2)Division and subdivision of family estates among children generation after generation, 3)Increasing cost to maintain aristocrat life,
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However, how did they try to reduce the effects of these trends?
Improve farming methods, a rational marketign system, increased feudal dues royal pensions, marriage alliances, investmen of trad,e
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What two ways could nobles be viewed by monarchs?
Rivals or allies of the monarchs- could be seen as suppressing the monarchy's power
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What was important for the monarch to do to the nobles?
harness the nobles' local power
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How did the state and ruler control the nobility?
Control of ennoblement, restriction of honour code, presence at court, financial assistance
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Noble power is reduced in regard to who and increased in regard to who?
Reduced in regard to the crown, and increased in regard to the rest of society,
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How was the status of nobles by the 18th century?
It was not obsolete or old fashioned,
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What does kamen argue is the role of the state with nobles?
Only the King can create new nobles,
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Why did ,many Kings multiply the ranls of the nobility?
In order to raise money or build up political status
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However what was the belief surrounding these new nobility?
"the king could make a nobleman, but not a gentleman"
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Were the Kings hostiel to aristocratic interests?
No- They recognised them as natural leaders of the people- They needed them as public ornaments
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What was the main danger to the monarchy by nobles? How did they curb this?
armed might of nobles- Successful in atrributing a strong sense of personal loyalty to the crown and gradual absorption of noble forces into the state,
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Why may Nobles have raised their armies due to their complaints about what? and why?
They complained they were excluded from high office, -in medieval times it was the right of the magnates to give advice to the King,
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However, now who were the Kings replacing the nobles with?
New trained bureaucrats,
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What does Kamen argue the state guarantees for the noble class?
State guaranteed the integrity and status of noble class
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What does Kamen argue the crown extend its system for the nobility?
Crown extended its systems of pensions to save aristocrats about to topple into penury,
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For Bitton, when does he argue a royal decree stated the Kings desire to honour commerce?
january 1627
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Therefore, how was the rule of derogeance modified?
Some non-noble merchants would enjoy noble privileges and nobles who engaged in commerce wouldnt lose their status,
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Card 2

Front

What does kamen argue nobility refers to in Europe?

Back

Refers to the entire status elite but imprecise,

Card 3

Front

What term was accepted as referring to a 'true noble' and what does it mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In rural area of Western Europe, what term was representative of the old nobility?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Did most nobles have titles?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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