Medieval World- Threats: Anglo-Saxons and Vikings

  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 23-04-17 10:08
For the sources, what are the four authors of histories historians have?
1_ Gildas, 20 Bede) 3) Nennius 4) Asser
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When was Gildas created?
540AD -De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae
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When did Bede write his work and what was it about?
-731, History of the English Church and conquest up to this period
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What did Nennius write and when?
Historia Brittonum in 828
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What does the Historia Brittonum look at?
It looks at myths and legends in Britain as well as the naming of the country
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What did Asser write and what was it about?
Life of King Alfred 9th, -It reports his life from Asser's point of view who was very close to him
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What makes this account different?
It is not based on legends in the same way as the others,
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For chronicles and annals which historians used, what are the three used and when were they created?
1) chronica Gallica (452, Annales Cambriae (10th century), Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (9th)
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What literature is used by historians?
Beowulf
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For archaeological evidence, what have cemetries shown about the arrival of the vikings?
They have allowed historian to date the Viking arrival earlier than believed,
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What do cemetries also show socially?
They show how men and women were treated differently,
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How did burials change in the 620s/30s?
Burials became more bare and less grand unlike the Princely burials earlier,
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Therefore, what can cemetries such historians?
*** society changes
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What buildings in particular are found from the this era?
There haven't been many until the building of the great churches began. Farms and palaces have also been found by archaeologists,
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What does Wiley and Blackwell also argue has been used for archaeological evidence based on stone?
Stone carvings, sculptures, ornaments etc.
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Give some examples of human masks which are a reminder that Pagan Anglo-England had stone carvings?
Human masks on the Whetstones from 'Sutton Hoon and Hough on the Hill'
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WHat does the rarity of such examples show historians based on religion and art?
It emphasises the fact that Ango-Saxon sculpture is essentially a Christian form of art,
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What do Wiley and Blackwell argue is the earliest surviving sculpture of the 7th century?
Some fret decorations on the chancel columns from the 'Reculver' in Kent,
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In the 700s, what were Northumbrian sculpture producing?
Crosses and grave markers in stone,
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Did this form of sculpture spread?
During the 8th cenury the form was adopted in Mercia but there is little evidence that they have spread to Wessex or Kent,
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How were stone sculptures used based on furnishings?
There are decorated stone thrones and fragements from other furnishings have been identified,
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What does Wiley and Blackwell state about the stone used?
It is uslaly local- It has either been won from a local quarry or re-using ROman stones,
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How do they aruge carvings were decorated?
They were painted an others were covered in gesso, so additional details could be modified,
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What other artefacts have been found such as everyday things?
Everyday items such as jewellery, weapons,
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For place names, give some examples of names of viking settlements?
-Thorpe, -Ham
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However, what are historians unsure of?
Whetehr they were named after a community, an individual or its demography
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Does Wiley and Blackwell suggest that all vikings named their settlements?
No- There are areas where there are no Scandinavian names but Scandinavian activity- This could be because Vikings must have taken over the settlement and most named of major settlements survived unchanged,
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What does Wiley and Blackwell argue about the use of 'thorp' as a name?
It was used in Scandinavia to show a second dependent settlement, and this in England is thought to show a alter stage of colonisation,
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How does Hadley argue Scandinavian place names are found?
In the Doomsday Book,
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What does Hadley argue about the historiography based on the distributions of the place names and the relations been settlers and saxons?
"It is not my intention to deny that the dense distributions of Scandinavian place-names in some regions may indicate areas of dense Scandinavian settlement... However, place-names also reveal much about relations"
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How does Hadley argue the contact between settlers and populations with place-names?
Sometimes there is a combination of Scandinavian and English elements to form names and the Doomsday Book was created by both,
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What does Hadle argue the form of the names reveals?
It reveals something about their chronoligcal entry into England e.g. place names that contain personal names had fallne out of favour by the 11th century,
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For the Anglo Saxons, describe the period by the end of the 5th century based on immigration?
People from Germanuc descent immigrated from the ROman Empire to the British Empire to the shores of the North Sea,
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In the following 500 years, how was the relations between settlers and immigrants?
They mixed- They would hot migrants from the same origin and ethnicity as themselves as they arrived
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Give an example of how the settlers mixed?
They converted to Christianity and created a cultural identity reflected inPolitical structures and developing towards Kingdoms,
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What does Hadley argue about the confusion with historiography here based on the distinctions between them?
It has been assumed that the settlers and their descendants were distinctive and a clearly identifiable element. However, neither is the idea they were rapidly integrated,
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In the 9th and 10th centuries, who does Hadley argue were the raiders?
They were recognised as Danish and in the 10th sometimes distinguished between Danes and Norseman, invaders from Dublin,
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However, how does he cotnradict himself with distinguishing and Engliish Kings?
There was little distinguishing of 'Danes' by English Kings and instead reference to the Anglo-Saxons or English,
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How does Bede describe the arival of the Anglo-Saxons?
"Then the nation of Angles, or Saxons, being invited by the aforesaid King [Martian] arrived in Britain with three long ships, and had a place assigned to them to reside in by the same King, in the eastern part of the Island"
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How did the migrants settle politically?
They used the political structures already there as their own,
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How did they settle based on their settlements?
They created their own Kingdoms, which were small and not well structure
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What eventually ddi warrior leaders and tribal groups gradually give way to?
More civilised societies with aristocracy and structured monarhcy,
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In the 7th century,w where did power gravitate to and why?
North, Northumbria- Migration was larger than previously thought- There was a legal system
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Why were there efforts to promote trade?
There were efforts to promote trade in places such as York to grow large
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How was England ruled? How many Kingdoms were there? Who will eventually hold the most power,
7 Kingdoms-Mercia eventually holds most of the power by being sheltered from the Vikings
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How did Keynes describe the political structure of Anglo-Saxon England?
A 'heptarchy'- Distinction between three 'Anglican' Kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia, and the three 'Anglican' Kingdoms of Wessex, Sussex and Essez, and the 'Jutish' Kingdom of Kent
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How does Keynes describe politics between these in the 8th and 9th centuris?
Political development could be reduced to a struggle for supremacy
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What was success dependent on?
The ability of one King or another to use the resources at his disposal
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What does Keynes argue the 'tribal hidage is'?
A short text of uncertain origin, -A survery of all the land South of the river Humber, presented in a list of 34 'tribal' territories,
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How was Mercia assessed?
At 30,000 hides
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What does the tribal hidage show?
It shows that at some stage, the overlordship iof a Mercian King has extended throughout England, including numerous peoples of the Midlands, East Saxons, men of Kent, South Saxons, West Saxons etc.
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What was Mercian overlordship for other Kingdoms?
Keynes argues it meant different things- The Mercians might have good relations with a Kingdom and respected its independence, or they might have taken territory and then left rhe ruler or taken direct intervention in internal affairs,
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What does Keynes argue had occured in the 800s with the Vikings?
The Vikings were assuming ever increasing importance for political change
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How does he argue vikings were viewed?
As the common enemy
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For Anglo Saxon society and economy, what overwhelmingly was it based around?
Agriculture
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Was the whole country rural?
There were soem urban and commercial centres
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Was there a hierarchy among the people?
The development of elites and aristocracy began to appear
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When were the first Laws of Kent introduced?
605
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Were peasants free and an example of how?
They were free, -They had to right to arm
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Later how was the distinction betwen elite and peasants and why?
It became blurred, perhaps due to Christianty,
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How was the land run?
There was a diversity of regime land holding- Usually run by a family
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How would people live when keeping land?
They would have a house for eating and sleeping and a separate shed for animals,
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Why was Kinship essential?
They had legal duties, payments for lodgind and worked around other concepts such as blood feuds and revenge as well as honour,
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What was there a cultural fashion of?
latin/Christian and Germanic values,
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For the role of Christianity, in the 6th century, what were the two strands of Christianty?
-One was a ROman strand and the other from a Celtic tradition,
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For the celtic form of Christianity, who was it led by and where? Where did it have a particular impact?
-Led by monastry of Iona on the North Coast of Scotland, -had great impact in North,
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What was there a development of based on monks/ monastries?
Development of monastic life,
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What was there a link with based on moving around the continent?
Link with continental spiritual movement,
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WHen in particular was there a development of monasticism?
Northumbria
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What was there also a development of based on intellect?
Development of intellectual life, production of manuscripts and development as centres of culture
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How did the monastry develop based on wealth and an example?
It was the centre of power and wealth. For example, 15,000 cows were needed to develop a manuscript/ book which was expensive,
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For the Vikings, when did they invade?
8th century- 300 years after the Saxons,
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Where are they from?
They inhabited the Scandinavian Peninsula
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What does Viking mean?
Trader and raider
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What did they trade?
In many things but particularly silver and slaves
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What ws the key to their successful navigation?
The versatility of their ships for the sea and rivers
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For motivations of the Viking migrations, what was an economic reason based on natural resources?
lack of natural resources in Scandinavia
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What is another economic motivation based on silver?
Crisis of the trade in silver in 9th century Pushed to piracy rahter than trade,
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What are four other motivations of Viking migrations?
1) Demography, 2) Environmental changes 3) Social turmoil (fighting), 40 Technology- Shop building and thirst for adventure
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For Vikings in Britain, when were the raids and attacks against monasteries?
8th-9th century raids
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When was the Great army crated?
9th century
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What happened to the raids by 830 as a result of the Great Army?
Raids became larger and longer in the continent and in England
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When does the Army land in East Anglia with how many men?
865, -300 men
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When is Wessex forced to peace?
871
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What happened with the Army in 874?
The army moved from Lindsey to Repton and there took up their winter quarters, and drove th King, Burhred, over sea
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What did Wiley and Blackwell say Repton was?
A middle Saxon royal monastry, a Viking winter fortress
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Did this monastic life continue after the Vikings arrived?
There is no indication monastic life was revived after their depature in 874, but the Church was rebuilt and became the focus of a large ceremony with as many as 16,000 burials
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After 873-4, how werethe Vikings in Repton?
Viking defences were lelvelled, church rebuilt and intesive burial took place on all sides,
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What happened in 885?
They invaded Ireland and later Paris-
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waht was questionnable about 885/
Did they want to raid monasteries or did they want to settle?
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For Settlement and Dane law, how do Blackwell and Wiley describe what the Danelaw is?
An area of England distinguished in legal terms from areas subject to Mercian and West Saxon law e.g Yorkshire, central midlands
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When did it originate?
9th century settlements of the Great Danish Army. It began with seizure of pwoer in Eastern England by Danish rulers and landowners
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Why do Blackwell and Wiley argue Danelaw communities were influential based on cities?
They enjoyed a greater pace of urbanisation and market activity than many areas
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How else were they influential based on the economy?
There was a true coin economy
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How else were they influential based on the church?
The church was marginalised as a landhlder and instrument fo royal power in the region
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Were Danelaw settlements a political entity within the late Anglo-Saxon state?
No, it was divided into several sub-units,
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When does Hadley argue Danlaw was first recorded?
in 1008 and used in legal codes of the 11th and 13th century to distinguish a Danelaw regin,
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Give an example of how the Anglo Saxon Chroncles describe a Viking raid in Northumbira?
'the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy Island, by rapine and slaughter."
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For the impact of the Vikings in England, what Kingdom had a cultural decline?
Kingdom of Northumbria,
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What Kingdom had strong ties with who and other continents through trade?
-Mercia, -Strogn ties with Charlemagne
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When did Mercia reach its full powers of expansion?
Through the leader Offa
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What is another impact based on the settlements of the Vikings?
The creation of the Danelaw- It is an entity, but not united in its administration and law
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What is another impact based on the emergence of what Kingdoms?
Emergence of the Kingdoms of Wessex- It split its Kingdom due to its large size,
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What is another impact based on monasteries?
They are held responsible for the construction of monasteries and were an element of the beginning of trade overseas,
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What did Hadley aruge was another impact based on language?
Scandinavian speakers eventially swtiched to speaking English but it didn't develop as a written language,
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According to whose mode, what was language used for rather than markign someone as an outsider?
-Hones, -Language used for social mixing and integreation
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For the troublesome North, who in particular was this?
Kingdom of York and Norrhumbria
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When was the Viking invasion into York and Northumbria?
866
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When did Norweigan Vikings capture York?
918
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What happened in 954?
The last Viking King, Eric Bloodaxe, was expelled
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Who arguably created 'England'?
Alfred the Great
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Where and how did Alfred rule?
King of Wessex after the death of his brother Ethelred
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When did he rule and the Kingdom at the time?
871-99, -He began at a time when nine major engagements were fought with the Great Army of the Vikings,
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How does Wiley-Blackwell argue he ended his reign?
As the King ofthe Anglo-Saxons after stopping Vking attempts to capture his Kingdom,
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Who did he introduce reforms for?
Anglo-Saxon Kings
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What reforms did he introduce to protect his Kingdom?
Reforms of the Buurghs and Hidage
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What were the Buurgh reforms?
The system of Burghal defences established a permanent garrison within them- He watned to ensure his Kingdom was protected,
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What does Wiley-Blackwell argue was the kind of policy did he adopt against the Vikings in SOuthern England which allowed him to do what?
An aggressive policy, which allowed Alfred to extend his power beyond the Wessex borders,
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In 886, wher did Alfred occupy?
London which was previously under Viking control
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What was Alfred's influence/ link with religion?
he was influenced by the Christian Kingship developed during the Carolingian Renaissance,
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What did he want to do for the people based on religion?
He sought his people's moral and religious regeneration,
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What did he create for the defence of 'England'?
Royal Navy
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Give an example of political reforms he introduced based on administration systems?
He created an administrative system based on old Roman towns, a system of taxes,
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How did Blackwell and Wiley argue Alfred could act?
He could act harshly if needed
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Give some examples of his policies which Blackwell-Wiely argue are hallamarks of a powerful King?
His law code coudl extend the effectiveness of royal control, -He also replenished the royal coffers through the annexation of former church lands,
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When did ALfred die?
26th October 899
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After this, what Kingdoms had hegemony?
Mercia and Wessex
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Who was the Queen of Mercia?
Aethefled, lady of the Mercians,
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What happened to her rule?
She became over-rule by the Vikings,
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What happened ot Mercia?
After her death, they incorporated Mercia into Wessex
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When did Edward the Elder die?
924
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Who became the next 'King of the English'?
Athelstan the Glorious
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Where did he expand into?
Danish territory, and defeated the Scots, Dublins etc.
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How did he become King ofthe English?
After militayr expansion, he declared himself King of the English
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Was he married?
No he was married to his country
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What unifiication did he make final?
That between Mercia and Wessex
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Lastly, what did he create based on assemblies?
Creation of charters' national assemblies,
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Was he married?
No he was married to his country
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What unifiication did he make final?
That between Mercia and Wessex
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Lastly, what did he create based on assemblies?
Creation of charters' national assemblies,
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When was Gildas created?

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When did Bede write his work and what was it about?

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Card 4

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What did Nennius write and when?

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Card 5

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What does the Historia Brittonum look at?

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