The Behavioural model of abnormality and treatments

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1. What are the weaknesses of the behavioural model?

  • It cannot explain all behaviours as it neglects genetics, biology and cognition, the therapies are not effective for all disorders and may be seen as unethic as well as only treating the behaviour not the cause.
  • It's a scientific approach with testable concepts and the associated therapies have proved very effective in a variety of situations
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2. How does operant conditioning apply to: bulimics

  • These people feel guilt and disgust, so make themselves sick so the removal of those feelings is negative reinforcement
  • We experience anxiety around phobic stimuli and avoid them, this prevents anxiety and acts as negative reinforcement
  • These people desire to lose weight or have more control of their lives, so not eating is positive reinforcement

3. How are taste aversions created?

  • If you are ill after a certain food, it's taste becomes a conditioned stimulus producing a conditioned response of nausea
  • We experience anxiety around phobic stimuli and avoid them, this prevents anxiety and acts as negative reinforcement

4. Which is an example of the new stimulus presented by itself producing a conditioned response?

  • Unconditioned stimulus(a loud noise) is presented repeatly at the same time as another stimulus (a rat) which triggers an unconditioned response (fear)
  • The rat presented by itself triggers a conditioned response (fear)
  • A certain stimulus (a loud noise) triggers a natural reflex (fear)

5. What is meant by operant conditioning?

  • It is about learning from actions, actions which have a good outcome through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement will be repeated whereas actions which have a bad outcome, punsishment, will not
  • It is about learning from watching others and realising the negative outcomes of some behavious

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