The weaknesses of the Federal Government: Johnson, Grant and the failure of Radical Reconstruction

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Who was president in 1965?
Abraham Lincoln
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What was the 10% plan?
Meant 10% of voters had to pledge an oath of allegiance
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What was the Wade-Davis Bill?
Radical reconstruction policy vetoed by Lincoln- meant 50% of the electorate had to take a tougher oath and state they had never give voluntary help to the confederacy
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When was slavery abolished?
1965 (13th amendment)
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What was reconstruction?
The period after the civil war when the south were reorganised and reintegrated into the union
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What are the 3 branches of US government?
Legislative, judicial and executive
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Who makes up legislative? What do they do?
Senate and house of representatives (make laws)
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Who makes up judicial? What do they do?
Nine justices cabinet led by chief of justice (explains laws)
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Who makes up executive? What do they do?
President, vice-president and cabinet (carries out laws)
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Who succeeded Lincoln as president?
Andrew Johnson (Democrat)
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What policy of reconstruction did Johnson adopt?
Presidential reconstruction
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What policy did Johnson employ to encourage reconstruction?
All southerners, except ex-confederate soldier and rich plantation owners, were pardoned if they swore an oath of allegiance (13,000 pardoned)
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What were the 2 main limitations of presidential reconstruction?
Republican opposition and black codes
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What was the second method of reconstruction?
Congressional reconstruction
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What was congressional reconstruction?
Involved congress gaining control of policy by overriding Johnson's vetos
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What was the reconstruction act 1867?
All ex-confederate states, except Tennessee were placed under military rule
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What was the aim of the reconstruction act?
To protect african-americans until state constitution was in place
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Who led the reconstruction act?
Thaddeus Stevens
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Who secured the 14th amendment?
Moderate Republicans and radicals
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What group formed in December 1965?
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How were Johnson's powers limited?
Tenure of Office Act 1867 and Command of Army Act 1867
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What was the Tenure of Office Act?
Prevented Johnson from issuing direct military order
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Why was Johnson impeached?
Breaches of the Tenure of Office Act (Attempting to dismiss Stanton)
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How were Republicans able to control Johnson?
Via their large majority in senate
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What were the main reconstruction amendments?
13th, 14th and 15th ammendment
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What did the 13th amendment do?
Abolish slavery
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What did the 14th amendment do?
Equal citizenship and voting rights
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What did the 15th amendment do?
Prohibiting federal or state gov from denying citizens the right to vote on grounds of race
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What majority did Grant win against Seymour in 1868?
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Who did Grant target in his campaign?
African Americans - dependant on their votes
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What method of reconstruction did Grant adopt?
Radical reconstruction
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What were the key policies of radical reconstruction?
15th amendment, Freedmen's bureau, Enforcement acts and the Civil Rights Act
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What did the Enforcement acts aim to do?
Strenghten the power of the 14th and 15th amendments
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Who opposed Radical reconstruction?
KKK, Southern state legislatures and Democratic party- Redeemers
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Why did Radical Reconstruction end?
Grant scandals, opposition and economic depression
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What was the 10% plan?


Meant 10% of voters had to pledge an oath of allegiance

Card 3


What was the Wade-Davis Bill?


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Card 4


When was slavery abolished?


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Card 5


What was reconstruction?


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