The Rise Of The Nazis

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How many votes did the Nazis have in the 1928 election?
800,000
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What percentage of the vote did the Nazis win in the 1928 election?
3%
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How many votes did the Nazis win in the 1932 election?
13 million
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What percentage of the vote did the Nazis win in the 1932 election?
37%
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Who established the NSDAP?
Anton Drexler
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What was the Nazi party originally called?
The NSDAP
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What does NSDAP stand for?
National Socialist German Worker's Party
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What did the NSDAP release in 1920?
Their 25 point programme
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What did the 25 point programme do?
Outlined the aims of the NSDAP
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What were the aims of the NSDAP in their 25 point programme?
Revision of the Treaty of Versailles, creation of Lebensraum, formation of volksgemeinschaft and opposition of the semitic peoples
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What does Lebensraum mean?
Living space
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What does Volksgemeinschaft mean?
National community
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Who co-wrote the 25 point programme?
Adolf Hitler
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What was the impact of the 25 point programme?
Membership increased
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What did the party purchase in 1920?
A newspaper
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What was the name of the newspaper that the NSDAP purchased in 1920?
The Volkrischer Beobatcher
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What does Volkrischer Beobatcher stand for?
The people's newspaper
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What year did Hitler take over as chairman of the NSDAP?
1921
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What did Hitler form when he came to be chairman in 1921?
The SA
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What does the SA stand for?
Storntroopers
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What did Hitler use the SA for?
In street violence against communists
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When was Hitler imprisoned?
1923
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Why was Hitler imprisoned in 1923?
For his role in the Munich Putsch
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What did Hitler do when he was in prison?
Wrote Mein Kampf
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When was Mein Kampf published?
1925
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What does Mein Kampf mean?
My struggle
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What was Mein Kampf to the NSDAP?
Like a bible
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What did Mein Kampf outline?
Hitler's weltanschauung
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What does weltanschuung mean?
World view
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What was Hitler's world view?
German nationalism, racial purity and social darwinism
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What is social darwinism?
The idea that there is no room for the weak
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Who did Hitler's ideals appeal to?
Radical right wing Germans
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How many votes did the NSDAP win in the May 1924 election?
2m
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How did the trial of Hitler help the Nazis?
It publicised Hitler's speeches and gave their beliefs national coverage
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How many votes did the NSDAP win in the December 1924 election?
800,000
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Why did the Nazi vote halve in 1924?
Germany recovered under Stresemann and Dawes Plan Successful and the NSDAP almost fall apart without Hitler
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What did the failure of the Munich Putsch teach Hitler?
That to seize power using force was useless, they had to win power legally
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When was the Bamberg Conference?
1926
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What did the Bamberg Conference do?
Reorganised the NSDAP into an electioneering party, established the fuhrerprinzip, created a centralised bureaucracy and curtailed the SA
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What was the Fuhererprinzip?
Obedience to Hitler as the Fuhrer
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How did the Bamberg conference establish a centralised bureaucracy?
Established gauleiters
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What were gauleiters?
Regional Nazi bosses
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What did the fuhrerprinzip ensure?
No opposition to Hitler
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What did a centralised bureaucracy ensure?
Organised and coordinated elections
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What did the curtailing of the SA show?
The public that the NSDAP were a serious party and not just a bunch of thugs
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What did the insurance and commitment to legality do?
Provided acceptability to the elite/middle class
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What are the years 1919-28 known as for the NSDAP?
The Wilderness Years
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What did the Grand Coalition represent to the public?
Stability
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Why did the Nazis not do well in the Wilderness Years?
There was no reason for the public to turn to the radical right
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When did the Wall Street Crash occur?
1929
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What did the Americans do as a result of the Wall Street Crash?
Withdrew all foreign loans and investments
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How much money had the Americans invested in German industry?
$25bn marks
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What were the results of the Americans pulling out of Germany?
Deflation, banking collapse, business crash, unemployment, crash in exports, drop in national income and loss of revenue
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What is deflation?
The collapse of consumer demand and drop in prices of goods
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What was the banking collapse?
Major banks collapsing as a result of the Wall Street Crash
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How many German Banks collapsed in 1931?
Five
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What was the business crash?
Where thousands of businesses collapsed
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How many businesses collapsed as a result of the Wall Street Crash?
50,000
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How many people were unemployed in Germany by 1932?
6m
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What percentage of the workforce was unemployed in 1932?
30%
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What was the crash in exports?
Industrial production halved by 1932
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What did the national income shrink by, by 1932?
40%
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Why was there a loss in revenue?
Reduction in tax revenue strained government finances to a breaking point
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Who was the head of the Grand Coalition?
Muller
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Did Muller's government react to the Wall Street Crash immediately?
No
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Why didn't Muller's coalition act immediately to solve the problems of the Wall Street Crash?
Because they were a coalition they were divided on how to act, they were scared as the last economic intervention led to hyperinflation and the government was broke and couldn't afford to rescue the banks
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What was the only action taken by the Grand Coalition in response to the Wall Street Crash?
They cut war veterans' pensions by a third
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What did cutting the pensions of war veterans do?
Alienated right-wing voters who turned to parties like the Nazis
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When did the Grand Coalition collapse?
1930
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Why did the Grand Coalition collapse?
The SPD withdrew
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Who stepped into the presidential role after the Grand Coalition?
Hindenburg
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How did Hindenburg govern the Reichstag?
Through a puppet chancellor of his choice
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Who was the first chancellor chosen by Hindenburg?
Heinrich Bruning
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Which party was Bruning from?
The Centre Party
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In 1928 what percentage of the vote did Bruning win?
Only 12%
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What bill did Bruning propose in 1930?
The Financial Bill
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What would the Financial Bill do if passed?
Raise taxes and cut benefits
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Did the Reichstag pass the Financial Bill?
No
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Who led the main opposition to the Financial Bill?
The SPD
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What did Hindenburg do in response to the Reichstag rejecting the Financial Bill?
used article 48 to pass the legislation by decree
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What was the Reichstag's response to Hindenburg's use of article 48 to pass the Financial Bill by decree?
They rejected the decree
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What did Hindenburg do in response to the Reichstag rejecting his decree?
He dissolved the Reichstag
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What was the final nail in the coffin for democracy in Germany?
The Wall Street Crash
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How many votes did the NSDAP win in the 1930 election?
6.4m
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How many votes did the KPD win in the 1930 election?
4.6m
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How many new members did the Nazi party win in the months of September-December 1930?
Over 100,000
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What happened to other far right parties in the 1930 election?
They did very badly
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Which far right parties in the 1930 election didn't do well?
DDP, DNVP, DVP and Centre
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What happened to the voters previously loyal to the DDP, DNVP, DVP and Centre?
They turned to the Nazi party
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Why did the NSDAP capture much of the young vote?
It was seen as a youthful movement, energetic, appealing and dynamic
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Who did the Nazi's appeal to?
Anti-communists, the young, far right, elites etc
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What percentage of Germans were working class in the 1930s?
46%
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What percentage of the NSDAP membership were working class?
31%
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What percentage of the German population were peasants in the 1930s?
21%
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What percentage of the NSDAP were peasants?
12%
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What percentage of Germans in the 1930s were white collar workers?
12%
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What percentage of the NSDAP were white collar workers?
21%
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What percentage of Germans in the 1930s were business owners?
10%
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What percentage of the NSDAP were business owners?
18%
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What percentage of Germans in the 1930s were elites?
6%
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What percentage of the NSDAP were elites?
10%
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What percentage of Germans in the 1930s were civil servants?
5%
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What percentage of the NSDAP were civil servants?
7%
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What group of voters were most attracted to the NSDAP in and before 1930?
White collar workers
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What were white collar workers?
The professional middle class
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Why were white collar workers attracted to the NSDAP?
Liked their message of authoritarianism, strong government and economic growth
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Which was the largest group of voters?
Working class
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What were the group least attracted to the NSDAP?
Working class
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Why did the NSDAP fail to capture the working class vote?
KPD too strong and the SPD offered welfare and had the support of the trade unions
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Which religious group were more attracted to the NSDAP?
Protestants
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Who did Catholics tend to vote for?
The Centre Party
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What fear did Hitler exploit?
The fear of communism
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What did the KPD vote increase by in the 1930 election?
13%
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Between 1923 to 32 how much did the KPD vote increase by?
It doubled to 5m
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How did Hitler use the SA with regards to communists?
He sent them into working class areas to fight them
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In 1932 how many communists died in street fights?
75
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In 1932 how many Nazis died in street fighting?
84
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How did Hitler using the SA to fight communists help the party?
The Nazis were seen as the defenders of business/capitalism and elites
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What did the Nazi party depict itself as?
The Volkspartei
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What does volkspartei mean?
The people's party
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How did the Nazis use propaganda to appeal to new voters?
They tailor made propaganda for each group
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Who was the propaganda chief for the Nazi party?
Joseph Goebbels
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When was Goebbels appointed propaganda chief?
1930
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How did Goebbels use Hitler himself as propaganda?
Hitler Over Germany campaign
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When was the Hitler Over Germany campaign?
1930
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What was the Hitler Over Germany campaign?
Where Goebbels flew Hitler around in the Nazi Party plane, he visited 20 cities in 6 days giving speeches and attending rallies
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What was the name of the Nazi party plane?
Deutchlandflug
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Who became the most popular party in the 1932 election?
NSDAP
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How many votes did the NSDAP win in the July 1932 election?
13.7
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What percentage of the vote did the Nazis win in the July 1932 election?
37.3%
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Which areas of Germany resisted the NSDAP's appeal?
Catholic areas such as Bavaria
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Which party did the Rhineland tend to vote for?
The KPD
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Where was the majority of the Nazi vote situated?
Middle class areas such as Prussia
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List some of the reasons for the destruction of the Weimar Republic
The Great Depression, the rise of the Nazis, opposition from elites, weak democratic centre, growth of the KPD and Reichstag
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What Hindenburg do to the Republic after 1930?
Replaced it with an authoritarian presidential government supported by elites
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Was the Republic dismantled before or after Nazis took power?
Before
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What did the fact that the Republic was already dismantled before the Nazis came to power mean for the NSDAP?
It was easy for them to take over as the public was already used to an authoritarian rule
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How many decrees were issued in 1930?
Five
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How many decrees were issued in 1931?
Forty four
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How many decrees were issued in 1932?
Sixty six
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What did the government fail to do in response to the Wall Street Crash?
Anything
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Who ran for president in the 1932 election?
Hitler
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Who won the 1932 presidential election?
Hindenburg
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What was the nickname of Bruning?
The hunger chancellor
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How much of the vote did Hitler win in the 1932 presidential election?
One third
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What was Bruning's response to Hitler's success in the 1932 presidential election?
He banned the SA and refused to work with Hitler
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Who played a major role in the dismissal of Bruning?
General Schleicher
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When was Bruning dismissed by Hindenburg?
May 1932
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What was the final action of Bruning that led to his dismissal?
He attempted to break up Prussian estates and settle poor Germans on them
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What was the final action of Bruning seen as by the elites?
Socialist
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Who was appointed to replace Bruning as chancellor in May 1932?
Von Papen
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Who persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Von Papen as his chancellor?
General Schleicher
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What were the ideologies of Von Papen?
Conservative and monarchist
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What was the name of the new government of 1932?
Government of Barons
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Did the rulers of the Government of Barons come from the Reichstag?
No
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What action did Von Papen take to help Hitler?
Undid the ban of the SA
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What did Papen use the increase of violence and disorder to do?
Launch a coup against the SPD led Prussian government
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How did Hindenburg depose the Prussian government?
Used his emergency powers
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What replaced the democratic Prussian government?
Authoritarian rule
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What did Von Papen do in return for the cooperation of Hitler in the Prussian coup?
Held another election
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Which major politicians did Hitler have the support of?
Schleicher and Von Papen
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What did Von Papen believe he could use the NSDAP to do?
Control them to create an authoritarian regime
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What was Hitler using to destabilize Germany in 1932?
The SA
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How many people were killed in attacks by the SA in July-August 1932?
One hundred
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How many people were injured in attacks by the SA in July-August 1932?
One thousand
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Give an example of SA brutality
The savage murder of communist Konrad Pietzuch in front of his young family
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When did Papen call off negotiations with Hitler?
When he demanded to be Chancellor
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How did having a presidential government help the Nazis?
It established an authoritarian government, created political instability, ruled out left wing opposition and emphasized the importance of political intrigue
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What did Papen attempt to do after negotiations broke down with Hitler?
Gain the support of the Reichstag
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What did the Reichstag vote against Von Papen in the vote of no confidence?
512 to 42
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What did Hindenburg respond to the Reichstag's vote of no confidence in Von Papen?
He dissolved it
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By 1932 how many men did the SA have?
400,000
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Who was the only person who could control the SA?
Hitler
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What did the elites want of the government by 1932?
A strong authoritarian government
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Give examples of elites who pressured Hindenburg into appointing Hitler as chancellor
Oskar von Hindenburg, Gustav Krupp, IG Farben, Alfred Hugenburg, Fritz Thyssen, banker Kurt von Schroder and members of the Reich Agrarian League
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What did Hindenburg demand that Hitler do before he became chancellor?
Achieved a Reichstag majority
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Did Hitler accept or reject the terms of Hindenburg to become chancellor?
Rejected them
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Who, in support, gave Hitler access to his vast media empire?
Alfred Hugenburg
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What did Von Papen encourage Hindenburg to replace the Reichstag with?
An advisory body and suppress opposition with army
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What did Schleicher persuade Hindenburg to do in late 1932?
Replace Von Papen with himself
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What did Schleicher hope to do as chancellor?
Gain national support and provide strong government
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What did Schleicher do as chancellor to regain the support of the left wing?
Restarted Bruning's Prussian land resettlement
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How did Schleicher as chancellor try to win the support of the NSDAP?
Appointed Gregor Strasser as Vice Chancellor
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Why did Schleicher's attempts at winning the support of all fail?
Elites felt that land resettlement was a socialist programme and Hitler worried that Strasser would try and challenge him if he gained too much power
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When was Hitler appointed chancellor?
30th of January 1933
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What did Papen do in response to being replaced by Schleicher?
Encouraged opposition towards Schleicher
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Who was vice chancellor to Hitler?
Von Papen
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By mid 1923 how many members did the NSDAP have?
55,000
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What was the aim of the Munich Putsch?
To create a dictatorship and put General Ludendorff as the president
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How many people died in the Munich Putsch?
17
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What did the NSDAP do with the trial of Hitler?
Turned it into propaganda
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How many years was Hitler sentenced to for the Munich Putsch?
Five years
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Where was Hitler imprisoned?
Landsberg Castle
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What year was Hitler released from prison?
1925
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What is a good way of describing those who voted for the NSDAP?
A rainbow coalition of the discontented
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Why was the Bamberg conference held?
Gauleiter's were beginning to suggest policies independent of Hitler
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What did Gregor Strasser challenge Hitler about?
His commitment to legality
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Who was appointed after the Bamberg Conference to lead the SA and control them?
Franz von Pfeffer
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What type of a role did the SA play following the Bamberg Conference?
A mundane one, training and stewarding rallies
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What two new NSDAP associations were formed soon after the Bamberg Conference?
The Nazi Students Association and Hitler Youth
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When was the first professional body for the NSDAP created?
October 1928
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What was the first professional NSDAP body?
The Association of National Socialist Jurists
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What did the creation of professional bodies within the NSDAP do?
Allowed the party to transform into a mass movement, spread propaganda and gain the positive attention of the establishment
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What was the most important NSDAP professional body?
The Agrarpolitischer Apparat
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Who did the AA represent?
Peasants
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Was the AA successful?
Yes very
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Give an example of the NSDAP targeting one group in an election?
The farmers in the local Saxony election
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In 1930 how much of the NSDAP membership were under 40?
Two thirds
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What organisation was formed to oppose the Young Plan?
The Reich Committee for a Referendum
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Who created the Reich Committee for a Referendum?
Alfred Hugenburg
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What party was Alfred Hugenburg from?
The DNVP
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What kind of politicians were members of the Reich Committee for a Referendum?
Far right
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Who did Hugenburg offer membership to?
The NSDAP
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Did the NSDAP accept membership to the Reich Committee for a Referendum?
Yes but only after prolonged talks on finance and guarantees of Nazi independence
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Was a referendum eventually held on the young plan?
Yes
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When was the referendum held on the Young Plan?
December 1929
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What percentage of people voted in favour of the Reich Committee for a Referendum?
13.8%
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What was a positive about the Reich Committee for a Referendum?
It gave the NSDAP national coverage as it allowed them into Hugenburg's media empire and gave them new resources
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Give an example of an impressive NSDAP rally
The Nuremberg rally in August 1929 where 200,000 people came
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After the Reich Committee for a Referendum, did the NSDAP vote increase or decrease?
Increased
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In 1933 how many Germans were unemployed?
Six million
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What is the mittelstand?
The lower middle class
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Did Bruning hold a parliamentary majority?
No
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Was there much resistance to the Prussian Coup of 1932?
No
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What was one of the successes of Bruning's chancellorship?
He ended reparations
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Why was Bruning's government destroyed?
Due to their financial bill
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Give an example of a Nazi rebellion from within
When Stennes, leader of the SA in Berlin, rebelled against the order of Hitler to obey a decree meaning that they required police permission to hold rallies
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Did Stennes' rebellion succeed?
No it failed to gain support
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How did the rebellions within the SA help Hitler?
It showed that he could deal with rebellions, proved confidence in his leadership and showed his commitment to legality
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Who did Bruning see himself responsible to?
Hindenburg
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Who should have Bruning been responsible to?
The Reichstag
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How many days did the Reichstag sit for in 1930?
Ninety four
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How many days did the Reichstag sit for in 1931?
Forty two
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How many days did the Reichstag sit for in 1932?
Thirteen
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How many laws were passed by the Reichstag in 1930?
Ninety eight
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How many laws were passed by the Reichstag in 1931?
Thirty four
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How many laws were passed by the Reichstag in 1932?
Five
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How many times was article 48 used in 1930?
Five
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How many times was article 48 used in 1931?
Forty four
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How many times was article 48 used in 1932?
Sixty six
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What did Bruning's government want after the economic crisis?
To remove the burden of reparations
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What were the banks initial response to the economic crisis?
To close for a three week period
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What did the government have to do to save the banks after the economic crisis?
Make available 1,000 million marks
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What was the Harzburg front?
It was an organisation of political parties with the aim of bringing down Bruning's government
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Which parties were in the Harzburg front?
Stahlhelm, DNVP and the Nazis
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Why did the Harzburg front fail?
Internal disagreements
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What was the emergency decree of 1932?
After Hitler lost the election, Hindenburg banned the SA and the SS
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Why did the emergency decree of 1932 happen?
Because of growing street violence and evidence that Hitler was going to stage a coup if he had won
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Who introduced the ban of the SA in 1932?
The minister of the interior
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Who was the minister of the interior at the time of the emergency decree?
General Groener
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Why was Groener undermined?
By a whispering campaign led by General Schleicher
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What was the idea of General von Schleicher?
To tame the Nazis and use elements of Hitler's mass support to create a military dictatorship
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What was the result of a meeting between Schleicher and Hitler in 1932?
Hitler agreed to accept a role in the presidential cabinet in return for the removal of Bruning and the lifting of the ban of the SA
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Why did Groener resign?
After being shouted down by Nazi deputies
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Why did Bruning resign?
He was ordered to by Hindenburg
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Who was chancellor in the government following that of Bruning in 1932?
Von Papen
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What role did Schleicher play in the government following that of Bruning in 1932?
Minister of Defence
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What eventually happened to Schleicher?
He was killed by the Nazis in 1934 as Hitler believed he was plotting against them
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What is the Prussian Coup d'etat evidence of?
The fact that there was an authoritarian rule before Hitler came to power
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Why was the Prussian government dismissed on the 20th of July 1932?
On the grounds that it had failed to keep the peace
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What did von Papen use to dismiss the Prussian government?
The constitution
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Who questioned the dismissal of the Prussian government by Von Papen?
SPD leader Otto Braun
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What did Hindenburg do in response to Otto Braun's questioning of the government over the dismissal of the Prussian government?
Ordered the army to seize control
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Who did Hindenburg use as a replacement to the Prussian government?
A reich commissioner
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What did the Prussian government become in 1932?
An authoritarian one
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What percentage of the vote did the Nazis win in July 1932?
37.3%
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How many seats did the Nazis win in July 1932?
230
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What did the Nazis become after the July 1932 election?
The largest party in the Reichstag
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In the 1924 election, how many working class votes has the DNVP won?
Over two million
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In Berlin,1932, what percentage of the working class vote did the SPD and KPD win?
54.3%
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Why did most people vote Nazi?
Because they were protesting against the failures of the other parties and republic
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What did von Papen refuse to due following the electoral success of the NSDAP?
Hand over the chancellorship to Hitler
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What did Hitler do in response to the murder of Konrad Pietzuch?
Pledged his unbounded loyalty to the men convicted of the murder, asked for their death penalties to be reduced to life sentences and then releases them once he is chancellor
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What was the only position Hitler would accept after the party's success in the July 1932 election?
The chancellorship
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What begun after the electoral success of the Nazis in July 1932?
Negotiations between von Papen and Hitler over his role in government
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Were the negotiations between Hitler and Von Papen after their electoral success a success?
No
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What happened as a result of the failure of the negotiations between Hitler and von Papen?
The reichstag was dissolved on its first day after loosing a vote of no confidence
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How much did the Nazi vote fall by in the November 1932 election?
Four per cent
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What was the weapon Hitler held against Hindenburg in November 1932?
He could vote down the government easily in coalition with another party
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What did Hindenburg do to try and get out of the political deadlock of 1932?
Sacked Von Papen and appointed Schleicher as chancellor
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What was the first act of Schleicher as chancellor?
To try and bring the Nazis into a coalition he offered Strasser the Vice Chancellorship
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What was Strasser's immediate response to the offer of the vice chancellorship?
To accept
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What happened after Schleicher accepted the vice chancellorship?
He was forced to back down and resign after a fierce battle with Hitler
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What did Schleicher's government lack without the support of the NSDAP?
Credibility
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What happened to the economic policy suggested by Schleicher in December 1932?
It faced major opposition
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What was the problem with Schleicher's economic plan of December 1932?
It was seen as far too conciliatory to the left
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What happened as a response to the rejection of Schleicher's economic plan?
Initiatives were undertaken to create a government of the right including the NSDAP
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Which social group literally helped the Nazis gain power?
The business class
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Why did the business class dislike Schleicher?
Due to his reforms
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What type of a rule did the business class want?
An authoritarian one
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Name some businessmen that helped the Nazi takeover of power
Paul Reusch and Kurt von Schroder
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Give an example showing the influence of the business elites
It was at Schroder's house in Cologne where Hitler and Von Papen met and entered into the negotiations which led to Hitler becoming Chancellor
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During their talks in January 1933, what type of government did Von Papen and Hitler talk about creating?
A government based on broad nationalist coalition similar to the Harzberg front
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Who supported Papen's and Hitler's idea of a nationalist coalition?
The Agrarian League and industrialist organisations
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Who was assigned the position of Chancellor during the talks of 1933 between Hitler and von Papen?
Hitler
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Why did Hindenburg choose to appoint Hitler as chancellor in the end?
The NSDAP had popular support and Hindenburg needed popular support to install an authoritarian regime and he thought that the cabinet would control him
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When was Hitler appointed chancellor?
30th of January 1933
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What type of a cabinet was Hitler appointed chancellor to?
A cross party one
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How many Nazis were members of Hitler's cabinet in January 1933?
Three
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Who were the three Nazi members of the cabinet in 1933?
Hitler, Goring and Frick
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Who was the Vice Chancellor to Hitler in 1933?
Von Papen
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Give examples of members of other parties sitting in the cross cabinet of Hitler, January 1933
Hugenburg of the DNVP and Seldte of Stahlhelm
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Who did Hindenburg have the support of?
The army
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Name some of the obstacles to Hitler's consolidation of power
Trade unions, Hindenburg, churches, the cabinet, their own violence, doubts of the public, political institutions and the army
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What percentage of the vote in Berlin, November 1932 did the Nazis win?
Only 22%
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What one factor would the effectiveness of the Nazi chancellorship be judged on?
The economy
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What was the biggest concern or doubt over the Nazi party held by the middle class?
Over their violence
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What factors led to the Nazi consolidation of power?
Their use of propaganda, ruthless use of violence, collaborations with individuals and institutions and their appearance of legality
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Of what political nature was Hitler's 'Appeal to the German people' broadcast on the 1st of February?
Conservative
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Give evidence of the SA quickly using Hitler's position as Fuhrer to wreak revenge on National Socialism?
A decree in Prussia was introduced by Goring which resulted in the police being reinforced by 'volunteers' or the SA
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What percentage of the vote did the Nazis win in the 1928 election?

Back

3%

Card 3

Front

How many votes did the Nazis win in the 1932 election?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What percentage of the vote did the Nazis win in the 1932 election?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who established the NSDAP?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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