the Death of consciousness

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Who was Pierce?
He was a son of a harvard Professor of maths & astronomy and a well educated US senators daughter, he had a priveledged upbringing as the second of five children
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Who was his work influence by?
William James
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What is meant by Pragmatism?
The meaning of a concept depends upon its practical outcome, A concept is meaningless if it has no practical or experimental effect on the way we conduct our lives or inquiries
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What was deduction?
All balls in this bag are red (rule), All in this random sample are taken from the bag (case), All balls in this random sample from the bag are read (result)
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What is induction?
All balls in this random sample are taken from the bag, all balls in this random sample from the bag are red, All balls in this bag are red
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What is Abduction?
All balls in this bag are red, all balls in this random sample are red, all the balls in this random sample are taken from the bag
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What is the stage of Abduction?
Moving from cases to hypothesis
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What is the stage of deduction?
Deriving outcomes from the hypothesis
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What is the stage of induction?
Testing the outcomes of the hypothesis
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Who was william James?
Born to a second generation Irish immigrant family in New York City Educated at some of the best schools in New York and encouraged strongly by his father’s positive attitudes to the benefits of education
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What did he believe in?
‘Stream Consciousness’ Individual and ever-changing Discrete yet continuous Selective
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What did James say?
Consciousness cannot broken down into individual sturctures (e.g. sensation) consciousness cannot be understood by trying to pieces such individual elements together, consciousness serves an adaptive function
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What did he believe about mind and body?
Separate interacting systems, mental and physical experiences are two aspects of the same thing... it is often the way that things are described that makes them seem different
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What is the functionalist theory?
How does the mind adapt to its environment, it's history and it's action
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What did Watson believe?
Radical behaviourism
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What is radical behaviourism ?
That all behaviour can be explained as the result of learned associations between a stimulus and a response, reinforced or extinguished through reward and or punishment
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What did Watson believe that human psychology failed to do?
make good its claim as a natural science
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What did Psychology as a behaviourist views it?
Purely objective, experimental branch of natural science which needs introspection as little as do the sciences of chemistry and physics
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What does this suggest about elimination of states of consciousness as proper objects of investigation in themselves will remove what?
The barrier from psychology which exist between it and the other sciences. The findings of psychology become the functional correlates of structure and lend themselves to explanation in physico chemical terms
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Psychology as behaviour will what?
Have neglect but few of the really essential problems with which psychology as an introspective science now concerns itself
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What is adujustment and maladjustment?
When organisms become 'maladjusted' to their environment they behave
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What is phylogenetic continuity ?
The mechanisms/processes are essentially the same for animals and humans
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What are the determination of behaviour?
Behaviour emerges from the stimuli and characteristics of the organisms
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What is the Classification of behaviour?
Somatic/Hereditary, somatic/acquired, Visceral/Acquired
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Who was Pavlov influenced by?
Darwin and Sechenov (Reflexes of the brain)
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What was his contribution to psychology?
Unconditioned response Conditioned response Unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus
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How can behaviour be explained according to Pavlov?
Behaviour can be explained through increasingly complicated chains of learned responses
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What did Hull do?
He emphasized the need to consider not only the stimulus and the response but also intervening organismic variables
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What are these variables?
Habit strength (SHR) Reaction Potential (SER) Drive (D) Negative Reaction Tendencies (D-) Drive Reduction Theory
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What did Tolman disagree?
Watson’s overly mechanistic S-R account
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What did Tolman argue?
learning is essentially goal-directed
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What Variables did he include?
Cognitions, purposes, hypotheses and appeptite
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What were the two types of learning?
Place learning - cognitive maps, Response learning - learning through repetition and reinforcement of specific responses
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What did skinner reject?
Necessity for organismic variables
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What did he distinguish between two types of condition?
Type S respondent conditioning (Pavlovian conditioning), type R (Operant conditioning) Wherein the immediate consequences of a behaviour affect the probability that the behaviour will be repeated
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Who was his work influence by?

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William James

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What is meant by Pragmatism?

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Card 4

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What was deduction?

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Card 5

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What is induction?

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