Structure of DNA- Unit 1

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What is DNA made up of?
DNA is made up of bases, deoxyribose sugar and a phosphate.
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How many bases make up a nucleotide?
Three bases.
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What are the bases?
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine.
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What is a eukaryote?
A eukaryote has a membrane bound nucleus. Eukaryotes include: humans, green plants and fungi.
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What is a prokaryote?
A prokaryote is characterised by a lack of a nucleus and a distinctive cell structure. Bacterial cells are prokaryotes.
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What is supercoiling?
Supercoiling is when Prokaryotes compress their DNA into smaller spaces. They twist to form coils and the original coils continue to fold over each other until they form a condensed ball.
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What is the genome?
An organisms hereditary information encoded in the DNA. A genome is made up of genes and other DNA sequences that do not code for proteins.
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What is a gene?
DNA sequences that code for protein.
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What are proteins made from?
Large amounts of units called amino acids.
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How are polypeptide chains formed?
Strong peptide bonds join amino acids together into a polypeptide chain.
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What is protein folding?
Polypeptide chains fold which results in different regions of the chain to come in contact with one another which leads to sulphur bridges being formed.
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What are the differences between DNA and RNA?
DNA is double stranded whilst RNA is single stranded. In DNA adenine is paired with thymine whilst in RNA Adenine is paired with Uracil.
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Card 2


How many bases make up a nucleotide?


Three bases.

Card 3


What are the bases?


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Card 4


What is a eukaryote?


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Card 5


What is a prokaryote?


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