# STM and LTM

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capacity
Capacity is how much memory that can be held in that memory store
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The capacity of the STM
The capacity of STM can be tested using Joseph Jacobs' study. He found that people could remember on average 9.3 digits and only 7.3 letters. It was easier to remember digits because there are only 9 but there are 26 letters. This shows how the capacity o
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The magic number 7+-2
George Miller wrote an article called the magic number seven plus or minus 2. This basically means that the immediate memory is about 7 plus or minus 2 items. He noted that people can count seven dots on a screen but no more. He also recalled how people c
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The size of the chunk matters
The size of the chunk matters to how many you can remember. Such as 8 word phrases and one - syllable words.
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Individual differences
Jacobs found that 8 year olds could only remember 6.6 digits but 19 year olds could remember 8.6. The age increase could be due to things like extra development.
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Duration
LTM lasts for a long time and STM not very long.
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Duration of STM
Peterson and Peterson studied the duration of the STM by giving the participant 3 letters to remember, and a 3 digit number. They were asked to count backwards in 3s from that number for 6,9,12 or 18 seconds. Afterwards they had to recall and remember th
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Duration of LTM
Bahrick tested 400 people of ages 17-74 on the names of their classmates. They were shown photos and were asked to list everything down. Participants tested after 15 years showed 90% accuracy and after 48 years it was 70%.
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Testing STM was artificial
It lacks ecological validity because lots of the experiments taken place were not everyday memory tasks.
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Coding
Information that we store has to be written in memory of some form which is described as a code
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Acoustic and semantic coding
Baddeley used words in a list to remember in the STM and the LTM. he found that acoustically similar words were hard in the stm but not the ltm. Oppositely he found that semantically similar words were easy for stm but had for ltm.
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Evaluation points
STM may not be exclusively acoustic. Some experiments have also shown that visual codes are also in the stm. Brandimore found that the stm was also used if they were given a visual task.
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LTM may not be exclusively semantic
Frost (1972) showed that long term recall was related to visual as well as semantic categories.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

The capacity of the STM

#### Back

The capacity of STM can be tested using Joseph Jacobs' study. He found that people could remember on average 9.3 digits and only 7.3 letters. It was easier to remember digits because there are only 9 but there are 26 letters. This shows how the capacity o

### Card 3

#### Front

The magic number 7+-2

### Card 4

#### Front

The size of the chunk matters

### Card 5

#### Front

Individual differences

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