Sports Psychology

What is the narrow band approach?
Type A and Type B personality
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Describe type A and B personalities
Type A - impatient, intolerant, high stress Type B - relaxed, tolerant, low personal stress
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How is narrow band approach used in sport?
Coaches can put in intervention strategies if natural anxiety levels are known
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What are the 4 types of personality?
Stable, neurotic, extrovert, introvert
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What is social learning theory?
Personalities change depending on who we're with
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What is the interactionist approach?
Born with traits but they are changed and shaped by interacting with environment
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What are the 3 components of attitudes?
Cognitive, affective and behavioural
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What is LaPiere's study?
Attitudes expressed as behaviour can be different to those written down - good or bad
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How can we change attitudes?
Persuasive communication
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How can persuasive communication be successful?
Believable message, role model delivers message, performer needs to be intelligent enough to understand message
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What is a stereotype?
A belief held by a collection of people about traits in another group of people
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What are the types of motivation?
Intrinsic, extrinsic
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What did Weinberg state in 1984?
Rewards don't undermine intrinsic motivation, it's the way you perceive them
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What is arousal?
Amount of drive we experience to achieve something
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What are the effects of arousal?
Physiological - sweating, psychological - anxiety
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What is drive theory?
Relationship between arousal and performance is linear
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What formula expresses drive theory?
p = f(H x D)
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What is drive reduction?
Loss of motivation due to believing you're performing at your best
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What is the inverted U theory?
Performance decreases as arousal levels are moderate due to anxiety
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What requires modifications for inverted U theory?
Type of activity, skill level, personality
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What is the catastrophe theory?
High arousal results in dramatic drop in performance
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What are the two types of anxiety?
Somatic - physiological, cognitive - psychological
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What is peak flow experience?
Emotional response to optimum performance - feeling in the zone
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What is competitive anxiety related to?
Competition type, anxiety type, individual differences
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What is trait and state anxiety?
Trait - enduring in individual, state - learnt behavioural response
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How can peak flow experience be achieved?
Confidence, relaxed, focus, satisfaction, in control of emotions
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What is instinct aggression theory?
Aggression is a natural response which has evolved
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What has Lorenz added to instinct aggression theory?
Humans build up aggression which needs to be released
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Why is this theory not valid?
All humans would have same aggressive tendencies
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What is frustration-aggression hypothesis?
Frustration leads to aggression or catharsis
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What is aggression cue hypothesis?
Frustration raises arousal - stimuli needs to be present for aggression to occur
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What is social learning theory?
Aggression is learnt by observing and copying behaviour of others
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What are the 4 stages of team formation?
Forming, storming, norming, performing
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What contributes to team cohesion?
Group integration, individual attraction
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How is actual productivity calculated?
Potential productivity - losses due to fault process
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What are losses caused by?
Co-ordination problems and motivation problems
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What is the ringlemann effect?
Individual performance decreases as group size increases
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What is social loafing?
Particular player doesn't try as hard as others as others around them
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How can social loafing be combatted?
Feedback to individuals about performance
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How can goal setting affect performance?
Directing attention to specifics, regulating effort, sustaining effort, provides motivation
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What does SMART stand for?
Specific, measurable, achievable, recorded, time
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What are the 3 types of goals?
Outcome, performance, process orientated
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What is performance goals?
Performance compared to previous performance
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What is attribution theory?
Reasons and excuses for winning or losing a competition
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What determines our decision to continue participating?
Expectancy of future results, feelings
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What 4 things are included in Weiner's model?
Ability, effort, task difficulty, luck
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What factors can be controlled?
Effort, task difficulty
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What factors can't be controlled?
Ability, luck
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What is learned helplessness?
Belief that failure is inevitable
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How do low/high achievers attribute failure?
Low - uncontrollable factors, high - failure is learning experience
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What is mastery orientation?
Individual will be more motivated by becoming a master in their sport
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What is attribution retraining?
Attributions reassessed so failure is put down to controllable, unstable factors - effort
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe type A and B personalities

Back

Type A - impatient, intolerant, high stress Type B - relaxed, tolerant, low personal stress

Card 3

Front

How is narrow band approach used in sport?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the 4 types of personality?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is social learning theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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