Sociology basics

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What is a youth subculture?
lIEK A SUBCULTURE BUT MEMEBRS TAND TO BE YOUNGER AND HAVE EMERGED FOR SPECIFIC REASONS.
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What is a subculture?
A group that live within a larger culture. E.g Frish travellers.
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What is a roleconflict?
Where the demands of one role clash with the demands of other roles played.
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What is a role?
A part you play that is associated with particular norms and expectations.
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What is achieved status?
Your poition in society that is cauased by you rown efforts and achievements. Eg doctor.
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What is ascribed status?
Your position in society based on the social characteristics you were born with (difficult to change) Eg gender.
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What does the post modernists theory say?
People can pick and choose their identity. This is true to a certain extent but not always.
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What is meant by idnetity?
How you see yourself and how others see you.
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What is nurture?
How your brought up.
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What is nature?
Hows your born.
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How does religion teach norms and values?
Morals, rights of passage, diet, how to dress.
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How does media teach norms and values?
Style, diet, body size, hiar colour/style, beliefs.
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How does education teach norms and valures?
Sociolisation. Ways or life, How you get a job, Current/historical events, The world, Different cultures
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How do peers teach norms and values?
Fashion, image, Socialisation.
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How does family teach norms and values?
Eating with cuttlery, Manners, Talking, Walking, Washing.
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Where do we learn norms and values?
family, peers, eduaction, reigion, media.
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What are some examples of values in Britan?
Education. material items, Image
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What are so examples of norms in Britan?
Wear clothes, Be polite, Eat with cutlery, Showering, Working.
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What is a culture?
A way of life of a group of people.
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What are vaules?
The belief system that the culture shares.
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What are norms?
The rules/actions that cultures share.
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What is socialisation?
Where people learn their norms and values.
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What are positive sanctions?
Rewards used to encourage acceptable behaviour.
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What are negative sanctions?
Punishments used to prevent unacceptable behaviour.
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What did sharpe say?
She did 2 studies, in the 70's she interviewed school girls and found that their priorities were marriage and babies. By the 90's this has changed and they ranked career, house ect above relationships.
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What did wilkinson say?
'genderquake'- girls attitudes have changed. There are far more oppoutunities for girls in work.
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What is hegemonic feminity?
Carer, nurturer, house wife - provide acre and look after the family.
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What did Mac en Ghail say?
'Crisis in masculinity' - due to changes in work, family and lack of male rolemodels boys are becming incresingly isolated.
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What is subordinate masculinity?
Homosexual masculinity - now becoming more common in society - changes in law and attitudes.
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What is marginalised masculinity?
Traditional male identity is now losing its place due to changes in work, family structure and the wider society.
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What is complicit masculinity?
New man- shares roles, shares childcare, jobs earnings.
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What did connel say?
Came up with the idea of hegemonic masculinity. He identified 3 other types of masculinity:Complicit, Marginalised, Subordiante.
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What is hegemonic masculinity?
Provider, strong - protector, decison maker, head of the family.
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How is the penal system a formal agent of social control?
They enforce the sentance. You lose freedom and the rest of the public is safe from the offender. Also it can act as a detterrant.
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How are the police force a formal agent of social control?
They have the power to arrest you and they make poeple folow lalow the laws. They can also act as a sdetterrant and also make people feel safe.
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How is the judicary a formal agent of social control?
They can sentance you. tehy can put people in prison and they decide th elength of time and also they type of puncishment.
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How is legislature a formal agent of socila control?
Thsi is the system that makes the laws. A bill, made by civil servant swhich goies to the government and it ha sto be voted by the house of commons and the house of lords. This it becomes the law.
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What is formal social control?
When an agents primary job is to contol people.
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What is informal social control?
Whan an agent may control people, but it is not their only job.
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How is the family an informal agent of social control?
They control you throught norms and values they teach. this gives people a conscience - tends to affect their behavior. You can also be excluided if you do not do what you are told.
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How is the media and informal agent if social control?
They can control what you think, eg, media moral panics. Also controls what poeple see as attractive and what behaviour is acceptable amoungst people.
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How is religion an informal agent of social control?
If you behave you go to heaven. If you dont you go to hell. oFTEN USED TO CONTROL PEOPLE SUCH AS SUICIDE BOMBERS BELIEVE TAHT BY BLOWING THEMSELVES UP, THEY AND THEIR FAMILY WILL BE REWARDED BY GOING TO HEAVEN.
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How are peers and informal agent of social control?
They can contorl you by giving you status within a group, or through excluding you. This can be from good or bad behaviour.
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How is education an dinformal agent of social control?
Informally, schools can control what you think throught what is taught and how to behave. Formally they have the power to exclude yo uand fine parents for not attending school or poor behaviour.
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What is primary socalisation?
Earliest socialisation - copying, praise rewards , family and education.
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What i ssecondary socalisation?
Later socialisation - rewards and sanctions. Education, media religion, work and peers.
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What is sex?
The biological differences between males and females.
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What is gender?
Differences between men and woman taht come from society.
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How is gender identity created?
Family, religion, education,media ,peers.
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How does family creat egender identity?
Toys, Clothes, Treatment, Roles at home.
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How do peers create gender identity?
'Bedroom culture, Clothes, Behaviour
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How does religion create gender identity?
Values and expectations.
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How does media creat egender identity?
Tv, books, films, Media images (shaoe, apperance), Behaviour on social media.
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How does education create gender identity?
Uniform, Hidden cirriculum, Teacher expectations, Subjects.
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What are stereotypes?
Characteristics atriubutes to one group of people, usually negative.
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What are som example fo negative sanctions?
Detentiopn, Imprisonment, Phone confiscation, Grounding, Fine
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What are some examples of positive rewards?
Sticker chart. financial bribe, treats, certificates.
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What is the 12 amrk essay plan?
Make 4-5 points and conclusion (sometimes and introduction, not always needed). Clearly define any terminology. Focous on key words. Good evaluation - show a range of different ideas. Linking sentances. Conclusion - make a judgement. ONLY 15 MINS!
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What is ment by the term validity?
The data is acurate.
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What is ment by the term relaible?
The findings can be repeated by another researcher or at a later date and get a similar result.
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What is ment by the term representative?
The data can acuratley represent the research popuklation.
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What is ment by the term generalisation?
Research from a study cabn be applied to the whole research population.
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What are the characteristics of a questionaire?
Not vaild, Relaible, Representative, Generalised.
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What are the characteristic sof an interview?
Valid, Not reliable, May or may not be representative, Not generalised.
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What are the characteristics of observation?
Valid, Not reliable, Not representative, Not generalised.
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What is a closed question?
A question that requires a yes or no answer.
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Whatis an open question?
A question that requires you to go into detail about your answer/opinion.
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What is aleading question?
A question that only has one side to the argument - only negative, or only positive.
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What is scenario question?
Gives you mor ehtan one action or option to choose/do.
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What is observation?
A research method used to understand people and their actions in their dail ylives doing what they normally do.
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What is participant observation?
The researcher acts liek the memebers of the group under study and does whatever they do.
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What is nonparticipant observation?
The researcher is completly seperate from what is being observed and plays no part in what is going on.
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What is covert observation?
When the researcher is observing in 'secret'. the group that is being observed is not aware that the research is taking place.
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What is overt obervation?
The group being studied know that the reaserch is happening, eithe rbecause the researcher told them or the group can see what the researcher is doing.
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Advantages and disadvantages of participant observation?
Advantages - Researcher can see with own eyes. Becuase the researcher is involved, they can gain more valid data. Disadvantages - Observer effect. Time consuming.
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What is the observer effect?
When the presence of the observant affects the actions of the group being studied. Therefore thereslut can be invalid.
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Advantages and disadvantages of non participant observation?
advantages - Researcher can see with own eyes. Because the researcher is an outsider, they can study people with an open mind. Disadavntages - Observer effetc. .Becuase the researcher is watching form a distance tehy may not gain acurate results.
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What are structured interviews?
The researcher reads a list of questions to the respondant in a particular order. typically closed questions.
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Advantages and disadvantages of structured interviews?
Advantages - Using closed questions, will allow the reader to quickly analyse data easier. you can ask lot of people. Disadvantages - The use of closed questions will limit the respondant to express their true opinion. People may be influenced by the
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What are unstructured interviews?
The interviwer will just hace some ideas and topic areas. More like a conversation and less formal
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Advanatges and disadvantages of unstructured interviews?
Advantages - Using open questions allows researcher to get more detail. High in validity. More liek a conversation. People feel more comfy and relaxed. Disadvantages - Interviewer bias. Time consuming. Info is hard to compare.
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What is interviewer bias?
When the interviewer influences the respondanst sanswers.
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What are semi structured interviews?
The researcher can ahve pre-set questions but alos flexability to follow up on interesting answers given by the respondant.
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Advantage san ddisadvantages of semi structured interviews?
Adavntages - Allows the researcher to have preset questions and th eflexabiltiy to have informal convosation. Produces accurate data. Disadvantages - Interviewer bias.
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What are focus group interviews?
A group interview where respondants discuss somethign together, with the researcher present to listen, ask questions and take notes.
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Advantages and disadvantages ofd focus group interviews?
Advantages - Can bounce idea soff each other, Disdavantages - Can end up beng led by one person.
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What is a random sample?
Each memeber of the population has an equal chance of being picke d- may use a computer of draw names from a hat.
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Whta is random strtaified sampling?
Want the sample to reflect th epopluation, divide the sampling frame into groups and take a sample from each.
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What is systematic sampling?
Take every nth person from the sampling frame.
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What is quota sampling?
Interview people from certain groups. eg young people who attend college.
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What is nsowball sampling?
Ask one memebr of a population, who puts you in touch with others.
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What is oppourtunistic sampling?
Give your questions to anyone who is avaliable.
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What is purposive sampling?
A sample seleceted according to a known characteristic. eg head teacher
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What is cluster sampling?
Certain areas chosen in the UK and random samples taken in those areas
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What interviews and sampling are useful for collecting quantative data?
Questions, Structured interviews, Random sample, Random stratified sampling.
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What interviews and sampling are useful for collecting qualitative data?
Unstructured interviews, Observation, Snowball sampling, Oppourtunistic sampling.
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What is content analysis?
The study of media material.
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Advantages and Disdvantages of media material?
Advantages - Cheap, Easy to use, Research is straight froward, Easy to compare. Disadvantages - Very biased, Quantative data, Result sare made from on eperson. Not a wide range of categories.
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What is primary research?
Research you do yourself.
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What is secondary research?
Research som eon eelse has done.
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What is the hawthrone effect?
Where ther observer has an effect on the group.
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What is triangualtion?
Where you use more than one method and th ebad point scancel out th eother methods problem.
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What i sa piolet study?
A small scale study completed before a piece of reserach to identify any possible problems.
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What did oakley identify?
2 informal processes of social control that are central to creatin ggender identiy. Manipulation refers to the way in which parent encourage or discourage behaviour on the basis of oppourtunities for the childs sex. Canalisation refers to the way in
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ESSAY - The family is the most important agent of socailisation in the creation of gender identity- arguments for and against?
for - Toys - canalisation anne oakley. Manipulations childes activities anne oakley. Against - Media - how men an dwoman should dress . Peers - exclude if not behaving right. Religon
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ESSAY - a persons identity is shaped mor eby nature than nurture- Arguments for and against?
For - Inherited menatl health issues, Biological differences between men and woman. AGAINST - Toys and clothes. ethnic group. Social class.
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Card 2

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What is a subculture?

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A group that live within a larger culture. E.g Frish travellers.

Card 3

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What is a roleconflict?

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Card 4

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What is a role?

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Card 5

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What is achieved status?

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