Sociology

  • Created by: Danushi
  • Created on: 14-11-16 19:55

Defintions

Norms - What is seen acceptable in society 

Values - believe in something you do 

Culture - The way of life for a specific group of people. 

Ethnicity - Shared identity which can be based on people from the same background. 

Multi - culturalism - A variety of different cultures and ethnic groups in the same area. E.g.London

Racism - Discrimination against somebody's ethnic group or race.

Socialization - teaching of the norms and values

Status - how much respect a person's gets

Roles - behavior and explanations for a person

Role conflict - two of your roles clashes 

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Defintions

Social control - Controlling the people within the society. 

Gender socialisation - Socialised into the N+V of the gender. 

Social class - Measured on a person's occupation (jobs)

Poverty - When you cannot fulfil the basic necessities.

Material deprivation - Cannot afford the basic material, e.g. textbook

Relative deprivation - Don't have what other people has, e.g. makeup

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Example of norms and values

Norms - 1) working hard

            2) extra curricular clubs 

            3) bring equipment to class

Values - 1) respect other religions

             2) value education

             3) punctuality 

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Examples of culture and ethnicity

White British - 1) Christmas

                     2) Christianity 

                     3) Queen 

Indian - 1) Curry 

            2) Diwali 

            3) Holi 

Black African - 1) Drums

                      2) Bright colours 

                      3) Meat 

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Examples of multiculturalism

Positive aspects of multiculturalism :

1) White eating curry 

2) Learn about different cultures

3) Try different foods 

4) Join festivals 

5) Learn different languages 

Negative aspects of multiculturalism: 

1) Not respecting the religion which leads to racism 

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Socialisation

Media:

1) Substitute hearth which is the main agency than family

2) Injects us with messages

3) Media stereotypes

4) Social learning theory - learnt to be violent from the media 

Family:

1) Primary socialisation 

2) Teaches us the basic N+V

3) Gender socialisation

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Socialisation

Religion:

1) Being a good person/ moral guidelines 

2) Values - restrictions 

Peer group:

1) Secondary socialisation 

2) Peer pressure 

3) Influence 

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Status

Ascribed status: born into wealth 

E.g.  1) Queen

        2) Kylie Jenner - goes into achieved too

Achieved status: work hard and gain status 

E.g. 1) Rihanna

       2) Alan Sugar

       3) Simon Cowell 

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Examples of roles

Teacher: 1) mark books

Students: 1) Listen to teacher

               2) Do the work

               3) Get good grades

Father : 1) Look after 

             2) Provide for family financially 

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Social control

Informal social control: Other agencies of socialisation teaching you not to break the N+V, e.g. sanctions which can be positive and negative 

Family:

- Pocket money 

- Encourage you to carry on 

- Grounded 

Education: 

- Positive sims

- Detention

- Post card home

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Social control

Peer group:

- Praise you

- Gifts

- May not talk to you

Work:

- Promotion

- Suspend

- Demote you

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Social control

Formal social control: The police and the criminal justice system teaches you not to break the law. 

Criminal justice system

- Say positive things

- Arrest you

Religion 

- Blessings

- Sins

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Gender socialisation

Girls

- HASC

- Friendly

- Caring 

- Dolls

Boys 

- STEM

- Protect the family

- Cars/balls

- Work for the family

- Pressured to be masculine 

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Gender socialisation

Media

- Boys - drinking beer, objectifying women 

- Women - fashion and beauty 

Religion 

- Women - raise children 

- Men goes to work 

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Social class

Working class

- Section of people in society that does manual jobs. E.g. bus driver, cleaner 

Middle class 

- Section of people who work in non - manual jobs and professional work. E.g. teacher 

Upper class 

- Somebody who has been or married into a position of wealth or status. E.g. Queen 

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Poverty

Causes of poverty

- Unemployment 

- Crime

- Institutional racism 

- Government - minimum wage, low benefits and pensions

Impact of poverty

- Unemployed

- Homeless

- Cultural deprivation 

- Material deprivation

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Charities which help people living in poverty

Bernado's

- This is a children's charity which aims to help children, young people and families living poverty. They do a lot of campaigning towards the government to try and help these people. 

E.g. 

1) Children's benefit

2) Free school meal

Shelter 

- They help people who are homeless or in danger of losing their home. They also campaign to get the government to give more support to these people as well as having housing to give people shelter when they need.

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Age

Children 

1) CBeebies - child centred society which means society focuses on children's 

Teenager

1) Gang culture

2) Subcultures

Women/men (adult)

1) Looking after society 

2) Have many responsibilities 

Elderly

1) Burden

2) Vulnerable/weak 

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Theory

Functionalism - Consensus theory (society is fair)

- Primary socialisation

- warm bath 

- Meritocracy - can more up or down (class)

- Have same N+V - can live peacefully.

- If everyone has different N+V , it could cause an anomie 

Marxism - Conflict theory (Problems in society due to the inequalities) 

- W/C are disadvantaged - social mobility is not possible - cannot move up a class

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Theory

Feminism - Conflict theory 

- Women are not equal to men - glass ceiling 

- 25% experience DV

- 22% MPs

- 5% own companies 

Post - modernism - Consensus theory 

- Class is not important 

- Everyone has an equal chance of achieving 

- A person can "pick and mix" their identity

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Social issue

Teenage pregnancy 

- Blame sex education in schools 

- Exposed to sexual clothing & products at a young age

- Advertisements and leaflets to inform and help parents

- Knowledge of contraception 

What caused the London riots

- Sociologists - amplification of deviance which leads to moral panic

- Psychologists - Depressed as it is the gov fault 

- Biologists - Naturally more aggressive/immorsive 

- Journalists - Gang culture 

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