Samuel & Bryant (1983)

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What were Piaget's 4 cognitive development stages?
Sensorimotor; Pre-Operation; Concrete Operation; Formal Operational
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What is conservation?
The ability to differentiate between something's physical appearance and its amount/mass
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What was the main problem with Piaget's study?
Repeated questioning subjected children to demand characteristics
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What was the aim o f Samuel & Bryant's study?
To test whether Piaget's methodology was reason why children made errors concerning conservation
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What was the research method of the study?
Laboratory experiment
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Sample:
252 boys and girls from Devon; Four age-controlled groups of 63 each; Four groups split into three conditions
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What were the three conditions?
Standard; One Judgement; Fixed-array (control)
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What were the three conservation tasks
Counters for number; Plasticine for mass; Liquid in a glass for volume (Each child had 4 trials on each material)
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What were the independant variables?
Task; Age; Condition
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What was the dependant variable?
Able to conserve or not able to conserve
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Findings:
Highest mean errors for Fixed-array condition; Significantly more mean errors in Standard condition than in One-Judgement condition
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Conclusions:
Younger children less able to conserve;Children develop at different rates; More able to conserve number than mass/volume;Piaget's operational stage not as fixed as he said; Small change in experiment can affect results
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What can be concluded from Fixed-array condition?
Children need knowledge gained from original, pre-transformation, knowledge to be able to conserve
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What is conservation?

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The ability to differentiate between something's physical appearance and its amount/mass

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What was the main problem with Piaget's study?

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What was the aim o f Samuel & Bryant's study?

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What was the research method of the study?

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