Restoration of the Monarchy

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What was the Declaration of Breda?
Charles promised that he would rule through a traditional parliament, pay the army arrears and pardon all subjects except a certain few
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Why was the Indemnity Act 1660 so important for Charles II's rule?
because it meant that he could disband the army, secure finance from London & gain support of the political elite, many of whom were parliamentarians
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Why was a land settlement necessary?
because during the revolution of 1649, royalist, bishop, catholic and church land were sold
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Why was a fair land settlement difficult to create?
because many of the purchasers of land had helped with the restoration- Charles had to be careful not to upset them
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Who handled the land settlement?
Charles left the matter to parliament
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How was the land question settled?
many of the purchasers were those who had been excluded from the indemnity act therefore their land was confiscated anyway & many royalists had already protected their land before 1660
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How did Charles disband the army?
paid their arrears and disbanded them peacefully
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Were there any limitations set on Charles by the convention parliament? Why?
no- those who wanted to restrict his power were in too weak of a position to do it
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Who handled the finances of the country?
parliament
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In what ways could Charles raise an income?
tonnage and poundage for life, customs (only those specified by parliament)- limit of £1.2 million set on customs but only £400,000 could really be collected from this
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What was the Hearth Tax?
a wealth tax on each fireplace- the bigger the building the more tax to be paid, tried to bridge the gap
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Was Charles financially stable? Why?
no, his finances came under great pressure especially due to his continuous wars with the Dutch
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How dependent on parliament was Charles?
very, had to call them every year from 1660-81
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What type of religious settlement was there?
restoration of the national church
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Was there any religious toleration?
some- ministers were allowed to chose what prayer book they read
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Did the religious settlement conform to the promises of the Declaration of Breda?
no- they promised the indulgence of nonconformists but this was not given, 700/9,000 ministers removed so that they Church of England could be restored
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Was their any legislation set for the militia?
no bills set, Charles was allowed full control of the armed forces and militias indefinitely
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How was Charles allowed to finance the militia?
allowed to raise up to £70,000 a year for three years through a militia rate
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Why did Charles dismiss the convention parliament?
because of the lack of legislation involving the military and the failure of the religious settlement
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What was the purge of parliament in 1661 for?
to remove men from the 1640's and 50's and appoint 'loyal' and 'well-affected' men
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What parliamentary legislation did the cavaliar parliament abolish?
star chamber- used by Charles I to try some of his leading critics, abolition of high commission- church court used by CI to enforce anti-calvinism & abolishment of ship money- used by Charles I to raise money through his personal rule
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What bills were passed by parliament?
triennial act- Charles had to call a parliament a minimum of every 3 years & exclusion of bishops from Lords to prevent a oncentrated group of support for Charles
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What happened to the exclusion of bishops?
exclusion of bishops repealed- presence of the bishops in the lords gave the crown a group of support
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What happened to some of the church courts?
some of them were re-introduced, but not the high commission
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How was the Triennial Act changed?
changed from having to call parliament every 3 years to at least every 3 years- wasn't a minimum of time the parliament had to be called
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What did parliament try and change which forced Charles to intervene?
they wanted to change the conventions indemnity act and land settlement- but Charles stopped them realising the unrest it would cause
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How did the cavalier parliament strengthen the position of the crown?
press, petitioning, popery and parliament
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How was Charles' position strengthened through press?
Charles was given the power to destroy certain documents e.g. one justifying regicide
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How did petitioning strengthen Charles' position?
stopped mass petitioning- those petitions that numbered more than 20 signatures had to be authorised by parliament and could only be presented by 10 people
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How did popery stregthen his position?
made it punishable to accuse the King of promoting popery or stirring up hatred of the monarch
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How did parliament strengthen his position?
parliament couldn't legislate without the monarch
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Did the cavalier parliament overwrite any of the financial reforms?
no- maintained the hearth tax and granted £1.2 mil, made sure that Charles was still reliant on parliament for finance
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why was the Indemnity Act 1660 so important for Charles II's rule?

Back

because it meant that he could disband the army, secure finance from London & gain support of the political elite, many of whom were parliamentarians

Card 3

Front

Why was a land settlement necessary?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why was a fair land settlement difficult to create?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who handled the land settlement?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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