Restoration of the monarchy

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  • Restoration of the monarchy
    • Reasons for restoration
      • Army + Parliament could not agree - distrusted eachother
        • Army more powerful but leaders unwilling to set up military dictatorship
      • Rise of Quakers worried gentry + landowners
        • Threat = minimal but seemed worse at the time
      • Economic downturn 1659-1660
      • Charles II offered 'Declaration of Breda'
        • Settlement = compromise + moderate
          • All sides determined not to have another civil war
    • 1658-1660
      • Protectorate of Richard Cromwell Sept 1658-May 1659
        • Oliver Cromwell had been only man able to hold together different groups
        • Main split = Army and civilians
        • Retired as army took over
      • Rule by Rump (again) Dec 1659-March 1660
        • Situation still deadlocked
        • Rump got rid of some army leaders
        • Monck re-established Long Parliament
          • Readmitted those excluded in Pride's Purge
            • Long Parliament dissolved itself in favour of fresh elections
      • Rule by Committee of Safety Oct-Dec 1659
        • Led by army leaders in London
        • Dissolved itself after a few weeks
        • Navy + Irish army declare for Rump
      • Rule by restored Rump May-Oct 1659
        • Army wanted Godly reform, Rump didn't
        • Army leaders dissolve Rump
          • Create Committee of Safety instead
      • Restoration March-Apr 1669
        • New convention parliament met
        • Charles issued 'Declaration of Breda'
          • Offered general pardon bar few regicides
          • Parliament vote him back in + re-establish monarchy
    • Restoration Settlement (Monarchy)
      • Restrictions of power = ship money still illegal, Courts of star chamber + high commision not restored + feudal rights not restored
      • Power of parliament needed curtailing
        • Monarchy (not parliament) controlled army - Militia acts 1661+62
        • King to appoint own ministers
        • Parliament cannot legislate without King
        • Triennial Act modified in 1664 - no compulsion to follow it
      • Act of Indemnity 1660
        • Long way towards healing + settling
      • Land confiscated from Crown + Church restored
      • Crown to have annual income of £1.2million
    • Restoration Settlement (Church)
      • Episcopacy reinstated + bishops re-admitted to House of Lords
      • Much of pre-war CofE re-instated
      • Act of Uniformity 1662 - new prayer book based on Elizabethan prayer
      • Conventicle Act 1664 - Illegal to hold meeting of more than 5 unless prayer book used
      • Could be seen as victory for church but much legislation not vigorously enforced

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