# Reseach Mehods Year 1

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Spearman’s
This is a non-parametric statistical test of correlation/relationships of two independent variables with the level of data being ordinal for a study with independent groups or between-group design.
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Pearson’s:
This is a parametric statistical test of correlation/relationships of two independent variables with the level of data being continuous for a study with repeated measures or within-group design. For this test to be conducted the 3 parametric assumptions m
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Correlation
This is a method of data analysis which measures the relationship between two variables to see if a systematic pattern exists between them
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Partial Correlation
This is a statistical test of correlation/relationships between two variables whilst controlling for the effect of one or more other variables
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Skewness
is asymmetry in a statistical distribution, in which the curve appears distorted or skewed either to the left – positive skew or to the right – negative skew. Skewness can be quantified to define the extent to which a distribution differs from a normal di
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Kurtosis
is the degree of flatness or peakedness of a statistical distribution, in which the curve appears pointier – leptokurtic or more flat – platykurtic. Kurtosis can be quantified to define the extent to which a distribution differs from a normal distribution
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Significance
is the probability of the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable investigated in a statistical test occurring by chance. In psychology the general accepted p value is lower than or equal to 0.05 to be considered significant.
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Probability
refers to the likelihood of an event occurring or not occurring, and it can be expressed as a number (0.5) or a percentage (50%). This value can be between 0 and 1 (or 0 and 100%) with 0 meaning the event will definitely not happen and 1 (or 100%) meaning
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Independent t-test
is a parametric statistical test of difference that allows a researcher to determine the significance of their findings. It is used in studies that have an independent groups or between-group design and where the 3 parametric assumptions are met, which ar
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Mann-Whitney
is a non-parametric statistical test of difference that allows a researcher to determine the significance of their findings. It is used in studies that have an independent groups or between-group design dependent variable is measured at the ordinal level.
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Wilcoxon
is a non-parametric statistical test of difference that allows a researcher to determine the significance of their findings. It is used in studies that have a repeated measures or within-group design dependent variable is measured at the ordinal level.
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Chi-Square
is a non-parametric statistical test of difference or association that allows a researcher to determine the significance of their findings. It is used in studies that have an independent groups or between-group design dependent variable is measured at the
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Reliability
refers to the ability of a research study or test to provide the same results after being performed on more than one occasion. In other words, if the findings of a test or study prove time and again to be the same, or close to the same, they are considere
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Cronbach’s Alpha
is used as a measure of internal consistency and it measures how closely items in a set are related. If items in a test seem to be closely related this means that the items are measuring the same thing and are consistent with each other. This is important
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Face validity
This is a very basic form of validity in which it is a simple way of assessing whether or not something measures what it claims to measure, which is concerned with its face value. e.g., does an IQ test look like it tests intelligence? This is often assess
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Effect size
psychologists calculate effect size to find out the size – how great or little of the effect of one variable on another that they found. Effect size is measured as a value between 0 and 1 with the larger the effect size the larger the percentage of the ch
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Random sample
is a type sampling method/technique in which each and every person in the target population has an equal chance of being selected to be part of a sample. This can be done by assigning a number to each person name and using a calculator or computer softwar
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Snowball sample:
is a type sampling method/technique in which researcher relies on one or few participants to invite people they know like family, friends, colleagues etc. to take part in the study in steed of the research actively asking people to join
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Content validity:
refers to how accurately an assessment or measurement tool taps into the various aspects of the specific construct in question. In other words, do the questions really assess he construct in question, or are the responses by the person answering the quest
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Difference:
Test of difference is statistical test that allows a researcher to determine the significance of their findings in terms of whether or not the dependent variable is affected by the independent variable. Examples of tests of difference are related t-test,
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Association:
Test of association is statistical test that allows a researcher to determine the significance of their findings in terms of
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Relationship:
Test of relationship is statistical test that allows a researcher to determine the significance of their findings in terms of whether or not there is a correlation (positive or negative) between the variables being tested. Examples of tests of relationshi
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Mean:
it is a measure of central tendency which is more commonly known as an "average." The average or mean is calculated by adding all scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
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Median:
it is a measure of central tendency that is defined as the midpoint or middle value in a series of numbers. For example, the median for ‘1, 3, 5, 7, 9’ would be 5. If the series has an uneven number of scores, the midpoint is the average of the two number
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Range:
it is a measure of dispersion which give you an indication of the spread of the data. It is calculated by subtracting the lowest score from the highest score.
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Variance:
it is a measure of dispersion which give you an indication of how much values in a data set differ from the mean. If other words, it shows whether or not scores tend to centre around the mean or they are spread out.
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Nominal:
is a level of measurement that can be defined as data in the form of categories such as eye colours or gender.
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Ordinal:
is a level of measurement that is defined as data that is put into an order or rank and distance between each value is not known or quantifiable e.g. positions in a race
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Interval:
is a level of measurement in which data is measured on a continuous scale without a ‘true zero’ in which each point is placed at equal distance from one another, for example temperature
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Dependent variable:
is a type of variable that is measure by the researcher and is looked at to identify changes. If there are any changes to or effect on the dependent variable it should be cause by the independent variable
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Independent variable:
is the variable that are some aspects of the study that is manipulated by the researcher or change naturally, so that the effect on or changes to the dependent variable can be measured.
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Type II error:
is also known as a False Negative and can be define as the type of error of concluding the result of something to be not significant when it is actually is, which result in falsely rejecting the working hypothesis and accepting the null hypothesis.
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One-tailed:
is a type of working/alternate hypothesis or experimental hypothesis that indicate there will a difference between the scores of groups or conditions as well as state the direction of the predicted significant outcome e.g. significantly higher or lower.
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Two-tailed:
is a type of working/alternate hypothesis or experimental hypothesis that indicates there will a difference between the scores of groups or conditions, but does not state the direction of the predicted significant outcome.
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Ratio:
is a level of measurement in which data is measured on a continuous scale with a ‘true zero’ in which each point is placed at equal distance from one another, for example height, age or weight.
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Standard deviation:
it is a measure of dispersion which give you an indication of the typical distance between the scores of a distribution and the mean. It is calculated by square root the variance of the data.
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Outlier:
In statistics, an outlier is a distribution point (for example, a number or a score) that is much further away from any other distribution points. Outliers can skew measurements so that the results are not representative of the actual numbers. An outlier
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Categorical data:
It is a collection of information that is divided into groups. It may be grouped according to the variables present in the bio data, such as sex, state of residence, etc. I.e.. Nominal data ordinal data.
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Stratified sample:
is a type sampling method/technique that is used when the population is composed of several subgroups that may differ in the behaviour or attribute that you are studying. It is done by identifying subgroups that make up the target population, and then the
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Opportunity sample:
is a type sampling method/technique in which the researcher simply decide to select anyone who happens to be willing and available by asking around e.g. in the street
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Correlation coefficient:
This is a measure of the direction (positive or negative) and extent (range of a correlation coefficient is from -1 to +1) of the relationship between variables
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Coefficient of determination:
indicates how much of the criterion variable can be explained by the predictor variable
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Normal distribution:
is a distribution with a symmetrical bell shape curve, the mean, mode median fall at one mid-point and its asymptotes (tails) meet the x axis at infinity. There are 3 prerequisites to a normal distribution which are the variable measured is continuous, fi
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Confounding variable:
is an extraneous variable whose presence affects the variables being studied so that the results you get do not reflect the actual relationship between the variables under investigation.
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Extraneous variable:
is an unwanted variable and is any factor or variable that causes an effect (or potential affects) other than the variable being studied
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Degrees of Freedom:
is a number used in statistical analysis to indicate how many ways the obtained results could have been found through random sampling. The degrees of freedom show the number of different combinations of scores that could have occurred in your groups to pr
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Levene’s test:
is an inferential statistic used to assess the equality of variances for a variable calculated for two or more groups.
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Repeated t-test:
is a parametric statistical test of difference that allows a researcher to determine the significance of their findings. It is used in studies that have repeated measures or within-group design and where the 3 parametric assumptions are met, which are dep
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Parametric:
Parametric tests are used when the 3 parametric assumptions are met: dependent variable is measured at the interval or ratio level, have a normal distribution and homogeneity of variance. To make sure the distribution is normal the skewness must be betwee
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Non-parametric:
Parametric tests are used when the 3 parametric assumptions are not met which means dependent variable is measured at the ordinal or nominal level, not having a normal distribution and homogeneity of variance. To distribution is not normal when the skewne
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Bar chart:
a chart or graph that presents categorical/nominal data with rectangular bars with heights or lengths proportional to the values that they represent. The bars can be plotted vertically or horizontally
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Histogram:
is a display of statistical information which presents interval or ratio data using rectangles to show the frequency of data items in successive numerical intervals of equal size. In the most common form of histogram, the independent variable is plotted a
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Scatterplot:
is a type of mathematical chart which displays a set of interval or ratio data, as a collection of individual points, using two variables on the two Cartesian coordinates. Each point represents one data, showing the value of both the variables for that pa
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Boxplot:
is a type of chart often use in explanatory data. Analysis shows a visual distribution of numerical data and schooner's through displaying the data quarters and averages.
Minimum Score: The lowest score, excluding outlives
Lower Quartile: 25% of scores fa
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

This is a parametric statistical test of correlation/relationships of two independent variables with the level of data being continuous for a study with repeated measures or within-group design. For this test to be conducted the 3 parametric assumptions m

Pearson’s:

### Card 3

#### Front

This is a method of data analysis which measures the relationship between two variables to see if a systematic pattern exists between them

### Card 4

#### Front

This is a statistical test of correlation/relationships between two variables whilst controlling for the effect of one or more other variables

### Card 5

#### Front

is asymmetry in a statistical distribution, in which the curve appears distorted or skewed either to the left – positive skew or to the right – negative skew. Skewness can be quantified to define the extent to which a distribution differs from a normal di