reproduction in flowering plants

reproduction
the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced from their 'parents'
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flowering plants
are able to reproduce using highly adapted structures called flowers (reproduce sexually)
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sexual reproduction in stages
1 - the young plant develops reproductive organs, 2 - sex cells (gametes) develop inside the reproductive organs, 3 - the male sex cells are transferred to the female sex cells
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sexual reproduction in stages II
4 - fusion of male and female sex cells (fertilisation occurs, and a zygote is produced, 5 - the zygote develops into an embryo, 6 - the embryo grows into a new, young plant and the cycle starts over again
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hermaphrodite
some plants have male and female sexual parts on the same individual
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pollination
the process by which plant pollen is transferred from the male reproductive organs to the female reproductive organs to form seeds
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stigma
a 'platform' on which the pollen grains land
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stamens
the male parts of the flower
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carel
the female part of the flower
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petals
usually brightly colour and scented, which attract pollinating insects, and may produce nectar
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sepals
protect the flower bud and usually disappear after pollination
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flower stalk
the swollen tips act as a base for the four sets of floral leaves
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anther
contains four pollen sacs filled with pollen grains, and each pollen grain contains a male nucleus
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filament
a long stalk that holds the anther
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style
a stalk which holds the stigma
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ovary
a hollow chamber where ovules develop
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micropyle
an entry point for male nucleus at fertilisation
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ovum
where the female nucleus is located
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self-pollination
only involves one flower, and it occurs when pollen grains from the anther fall directly onto the stigma of the same flower
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cross-pollination
the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive organ of one plant to the female reproductive organ of another plant (only possible for flowers that are not hermaphrodite)
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after fertilisation
the sepals, petals, stigmas, style and anthers wither away leaving only the ovary on the flower stalk
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ovary wall
may become hard and dry (Brazil nut), very soft and fleshy (plum) or form a leathery pouch (wallflower)
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fertilised ovule
develops into a seed, with the zygote forming the embryo
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seed coat (testa)
prevents drying out of the embryo
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micropyle
a small hole in the testa which allows the entry of water and oxygen
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cotyledons (seed leaves)
may form the food store for the embryo
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endosperm
tissue which form the food store in cereal crops
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plumule + radicle
young shoots that with the cotyledons make up the embryo
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carpel
carpel becomes the fruit
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ovule
becomes the seed
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germination
the development of a plant from a seed or spore after a period of dormancy
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conditions for germination
a supply of water, oxygen for aerobic respiration, and a temperature suitable for the enzymes involved in germination
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dormancy
seeds survive in a resting state during which they use hardly can food if said seed does not experience ideal conditions for germination immediately
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hypogeal germination
is a botanical term indicating that the germination of a plant takes place below the ground
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

are able to reproduce using highly adapted structures called flowers (reproduce sexually)

Back

flowering plants

Card 3

Front

1 - the young plant develops reproductive organs, 2 - sex cells (gametes) develop inside the reproductive organs, 3 - the male sex cells are transferred to the female sex cells

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

4 - fusion of male and female sex cells (fertilisation occurs, and a zygote is produced, 5 - the zygote develops into an embryo, 6 - the embryo grows into a new, young plant and the cycle starts over again

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

some plants have male and female sexual parts on the same individual

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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