Reporting during WW1

At the start of the war what was the public opinion like?
Patriotic optimism, some anti war people but majority were for it. People wanted victory.
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Who was Millicent Fawcett?
She was the suffragist leader and agreed that war would benefit women's rights in the long term.
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What were conscientious objectors?
People who refused military service - they were then judged and most were allocated non combat roles. People who also refused this option sent into the army or jailed.
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How did the government judged public opinion of the war?
By assessing the reactions to the news. Reactions in letters, to MP's or in public meetings.
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Germans had 'war press office' to control their news. British let newspapers censor themselves but controlled direct war reporting. Soldiers letters home were censored too.
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What happened in September 1914?
War office began issuing its own reports, written by Swinton. But hard for readers to understand so little interest.
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Who was head of war propaganda?
MP Charles Masterman
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What was war propaganda focused on?
Focused on war aims and social reforms, directed at foreign countries too. Was truthful but sometimes hid the whole truth.
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War posters
Were patriotic and anti - German. Especially the 'Times' and 'daily mail'
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Why was the war office critiqued?
Reports were apparently one sided so government then had to allow war correspondents to go to the front.
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May 1915, how many correspondents were at the front?
5 correspondents including Russell and Gibbs
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What did the war correspondents wear?
Officers uniforms with a green armband.
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Who were war correspondents under the control of?
Army press officers and Brigadier generals
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Were correspondents limited whilst on the front?
Yes, they could only be at the rear of the front to meet wounded soldiers and prisoners of war.
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Were war correspondents reports influential?
No, they had very little impact on public opinion.
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What was the relationship like between the government and the media?
The government wanted to keep the press on their side as they knew it would be important to them to have good press.
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What divisions did government propaganda have?
Cinema, Political intelligence and news.
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Who was Max Aitken?
The minister of information
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Did public opinion change of the war?
There was no public opinion polls to understand views of the public. But optimism was now replaced with sorrow and anger.
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What was the governments war aim?
'To hope of a better tomorrow' this is so the public don't give up hope.
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What were 'Box Brownie' and 'Vest Pocket Kodat' ?
These were cameras that were small enough to carry.
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What happened after British and German troops met on No mans land?
Soldiers were originally taking photos but Sir John French then banned them from doing so and no photos could be sent to newspapers either.
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What did the 'the war illustrated' do?
It relied on drawings but they usually avoided the stark realities of war.
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What was the Daily Mirrors response to the banning of photographs?
They offered £1,000 to best snapshot of the Western front.
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Who was the first official war photographer?
Ernest Brooks (1916)
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Why were official war photographers introduced?
To show the positive side of the army, some photos were clearly staged to make them look good.
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Who directed the movement of war artists?
Charles Masterman and William Rothenstein
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Who was the first war artist?
Muirhead Bone (May 1916) the bureau tried to control what artists painted but were unsuccessful, paintings were very realistic.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Who was Millicent Fawcett?


She was the suffragist leader and agreed that war would benefit women's rights in the long term.

Card 3


What were conscientious objectors?


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Card 4


How did the government judged public opinion of the war?


Preview of the front of card 4

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