Reformation to Revolution- Liberalism

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  • Created on: 20-04-17 03:05
Who is John Stuart Mill?
A Victorian Firebrand. He is a liberal author and thinker
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What things does Mill believe in?
-Freedom, -Equality, -Imperialism
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In the 19th century, what does Kahan argue European liberalism was defined by?
Its contradictions within liberal attitudes to the past, ideas about the present and projects for the future,
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What does Kahan argue there is trouble defining about the movement?
There is trouble defining whether it is a 'left' wing or 'right' wing movement,
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Describe the relationship between liberals and the Enlightenment and the French Revolution?
Relationship with the Enlightenment and the French Revolution- Many of the goal liberals pursued had similarities with the aims of 18th century Enlightened reformers.
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However, what aspect did they reject from the French revolution?
The radical methods,
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What aspects of liberalism did Liberalists reject?
Liberalists rejected Jacobinism, the Terror and all the other aspects of the French Revolution,
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What does Kahan argue Liberals sought to tame the Revolution to what purpose?
To show Enlightenment principles,
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Why were Liberals prepared to join revolutions?
To end them,
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How did Governments use liberals?
In the eyes of the government they were
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What is the most successful example of liberal intervention since aliberal government averted revolution entirely?
1832 England's suffrage reform
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For who are the liberals, what class was this belief predominated by?
The European middle classes
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What did it challenge?
The old aristocratic order
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But who was it challenged by?
Revolutionary socialism
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Kahan argues Liberals were always fighting a war on two fronts. What are these two frnts?
-One from above from the absolute monarchy, -One from below, the sans-culotte lower classes,
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Why does Kahan argue Liberals consider themselves having two fronts?
As they beleive they are the nly true centre party,
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Who was another of their opponents?
Catholics
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Why does Kahan argue Catholics were an opponent of liberalism?
As heirs of Englightenment, liberals regarded themselves as defenders of religious toleration in the 19th century,
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Liberals defined themselves in opposition to both the old regime and to what based on politics?
Political democracy-
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What dpes kahan argue is one of the functions of liberal political discourse?
To allow liberals to reject hereditary claims of aristocracy and absolutism,
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For Liberal beliefs, what do they believe in based on freedom?
Freedom of the individual including free speech
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What is the name of a Liberal philosopher who was an early pioneer of freedom of expression during what events?
-Willian von Humboldt, -During the industrial revoltuon and french revolution
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What else do they believe in politically?
Constitution or Parliamentarism
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What Italian radical wanted an Italian Republic party and what else based on aristocracy?
-Mazzini, -Wanted to restrict the Italian aristocracy
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What is another belief of liberalism based on trade for what freedom?
Free trade for economic freedom
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Give the names of those who supported the Anti-COrn League and what did they campaign for?
-John Bright and Richard Cobden, -Campaigns for cheaper food, in particular agricultural goods- Stop imposing tariffs on imports to cheapen food,
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What is another belief based on expansion?
Imperialism or Liberal imperialism
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Give the name of the Mayor of Birmingham who argued about key expansionism where in the 19th century?
-Joseph Chamberlain, -Africa
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what does Kahen argue about their distinction between rights and politics?
They use the idea of political capacity- Liberals justified their own cliam to political hegemony and found a means to exclude those who might challenge it,
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What did Liberalism believe about rights which they put in constitutions?
Rights to assemble, rights ti religious freedom, rights to proerty, rights to work and engage in commerce,
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For a Pogrom for the future, what does Kahan argue the liberals wanted to create about rights and minorities?
They wanted to create political rights to those who don't have them,
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Only when everyone was capable of usefully participating in politics would what come into existence?
The ieal liberal state,
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What were they committed to achieving and preseving based on politics, education and universality?
-Political freedom, -Committed to educational projects, -Creation of society in which political rights are universal
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Kahan poses the Suffrage Question. He argues in principle, who does the Liberals exclude from voting?
They exclude no-one, at least no adult males, from the vote,
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What was there a right for rather than a right to political participation?
Right to be well-governed
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For liberals, what was the crucial uestion to discover based on political capaciy?
Which people had the capactiy to participate in politics without bringing on chaos,
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Where is the traditional homeland of Liberalism argued by Kahan?
England
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Where is the homeland of the Revolution, where Liberalism had to confront what early challenge?
-France, -Had to confront the early challenge from democratic visions of politics,
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How does Kahan present Germany?
As the illiberal extreme of European political culture,
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What are functionalist accounts?
Understanding the function of a society,
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How would they interpret liberal doctrines?
In terms of advantages they offered the European bourgeoisie,
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For example, what did free speech accommodate?
Religious dissent
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What does Kahan argue parliamentarism facilitates?
Bourgeoisie control of legislation
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What does Kahan argue constitutionalism is dominated by?
Middle classes,
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How does imperialism and free trade give advantages to the bourgeoisie?
A manufacturer needs somehwere to sell their goods, and selling them abroad in places such as Africa leads to maximum bonuses
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For where it wwas active, how does what historian describe its influence?
John Gray- Liberalism was the hegemonic world ideology
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How does Thompson describe the succes of liberalism during 1918 and 1919?
Liberal triumph, particularly effective under US leadership, appeared to be complete and in a broad sense was consolidated historicallt,
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Thompson- For the USA, as the great liberal exemplar, what US president had a particularly liberal ideology with what prohect in 1918?
Wilson's 14 Point,
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For where was it active, in the 1830s where did it take root in particular in the form of a revolution?
Frace- Created a liberal regime,
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How was liberalism activ in Germany?
Political writing began among German liberals, and on some parts liberals entered into a new position of political influece
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However, where does Thompson argue liberalism was a failure and why?
Russia- Liberalim proved a failure- Liberals had their chance after the Tsar's overthow, but they only ruled for a few months
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In England, what government passed what act that liberalised Engish politics?
-1832, -Whig Government -Great Reform Act,
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What are two types of ways to define capacity?
1) 'Individualist liberalism'- Evaluating the capacity of individuals, 2) 'Socally oriented liberalism'- Capacity of social groups
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What was the most common variety of political discourse?
Class
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What does Mill say about freedom?
"the only purpose for whcih power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilised community, against his will, is to prevent hard to others"
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What are three exceotions to Mill's freedom ideas?
1) Children 2) Those still in a state to require being taken care of by others, -Those backward states of society in which race may be considered in its nonage."
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For outside these three categories, emphasis the 2 things?
1) Freedomon of Speech 2) religious tolerance (defends Mormon polygamy)
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For Mill, what does he argue was one of the key ssytems in British liberal thinking and an example in 1872?
-Temperance, -Gladstone's 1872 Licensing Act
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How does Mill feel about alcohol?
He defends the freedom to be drunk
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What does he say abut drinking?
"the making himself drunk, in a person who drunkness excited to do harm to others is a crime against oters'
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What is seen as something that harms society?
Idleness
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What law was passed in 1834 which stopped idleness through what?
-Poor Law Amendment Act -Led to the workhouse,
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FOr mill's views on equality, how does he feel about equality?
he emphasises equality of treatment or procedural equality,
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What did Mill write about equality and religion?
"If christians would teach infidels to be jut to Christianity, they should themselves be just to infidelity,
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Although the argument is wider and relates to who?
Bentham
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What does Betham argue about equality and happiness?
"the equal claim of everybody to happiness in the estimate of the moralist and the legislator, involves an equal claim to all the mean of happiness"
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For the practical implications of Mills's views on equality, what is one implication based on property?
The maintenance of property rights e.g. minimal taxation was central to liberal thought in the 19th century
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What does Mill say about property and mobs?
Mill sees property as natural and under threat from mob rule
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There are limits to equality which include what?
The 'inevitable conditions of human life' and the 'general interest'
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What is another implication based on womem?
Women's emancipation which was a less prominent feature of 19th century liberalism
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What did On the Subjection of Women argued?
That the subjugation of women was not a matter of nature but one of convention
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How ddi he argue progress woud be made?
Educatin would play a key role
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What does Thompson however argue about liberalism and contradictions between property and women and freedom?
Liberal attitudes to freedom and property contradicted each other particularly as far as women were concerned
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Why is this a contradiction?
As thw question of inheritance implied tight control over sexual behaviour.
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For mill on imperialism, what was a key area of his thinking based on division between who?
Civilised and barbarous societies
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Give an example of a barbarous or savage society? How does he argue progress could be maintained there?
-India, -Obtained through the medium of British influence
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What was his own livelihood dependent on based on imperialism?
Dependent on his work for the East India Company and he defended it consistently against the British Government
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During the Treaty of Versailles and agreements on land, what does what historian say about these agreements and racism?
-Hugh Purcell, -White dominions were almost by definition racist'
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Who does Thompson argue was another Liberalist thinker inthe sphere of Liberalism?
Keynes
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What was he largely responsible for in Britain for the part?
The Liberal Party'sProgramme in 1928
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What Liberalist belief was he particularly committed to although what did he believe there was a contradiction in?
-belief in free trade, -Contradiction in free market capitalism that was developed to maturity in the courseof 1930s,
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FOr fortunes of Liberalism, overall what was it?
A sucess
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Despite the failure of what, Liberals had become increasingly influential in their demands for what?
-1848 revolutions, -Thye became increasingly influential in their demands for social/constitutional reform at home and foreign adventurism,
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Give an example of Liberalism in the French Liberal Exmpire of the 1860s?
Louis Napoleon's Government introduced socia reforms e.g. greater press fredom
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However, what was the period also marked by?
Overseas interventions e.g. the Mexican intervention
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Who was Joseph Chamberlain?
Liberal mayor
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what muncipal reforms did he implement which aimed to do what?
To improve living and working conditions,
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However, as Colonial Secretary, what was he an advocate of?
Imperial expansion
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For New Labour, what kind of reofrms were there an emphasis for at home?
Social reforms such as tax credits and the Sure Start aimed at reducing child pvoerty
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Atlthough what was their foreign policyideas?
Adventurism abroad e.g. Kossovo, Iraq, Afghanisatan
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For fortunes of liberalism: failure, the great crisis of European liberalism is regarded as when?
The inter-war period,
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The impact of WW1 and the failure of the L of N caused what?
A crisis of liberal internationalism
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What damaged the interests of liberal constituencies, particuarly among who?
Economic conditions of the inter-war period, -Among artisanal and commercial classes
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What is another failure based on challenges?
Ideological challenges from the left (communism) and right (fascism) gained international sponsors- Soviet Union and Italy
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To conclude, what was Mill's contributions to debates about 19th century political issues? (7)
-Temperance, -Enfranchisement of women, -Poor law reform, -Government of India, -Religious toleration, -Censorship and Indecency laws, -Taxation and Maintenance of Property Rights
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What things does Mill believe in?

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-Freedom, -Equality, -Imperialism

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In the 19th century, what does Kahan argue European liberalism was defined by?

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Card 4

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What does Kahan argue there is trouble defining about the movement?

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Card 5

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Describe the relationship between liberals and the Enlightenment and the French Revolution?

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