Steps to Italian Unification

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  • Created by: iona.k
  • Created on: 05-04-16 22:06

French Revolution 1789 - 1799

  • Was associated with the enlightenment values of Rosseau and Voltaire. 
  • Brought about the Rights of Man
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Napoleonic Wars 1803 - 1815

  • Destroyed old empires (liberating Italian states from Austrian rules)
  • Treaty of Vienna 1815 (restored old empires)
    • Austrians given direct rule of Lombardy and Venetia. 
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1820 Revolts

  • Intellectual movement characterised by the developement of nationalism through the arts. 
  • Political Nationalism developing through the growth of secret nationalist societies e.g. Carbonari. 
  • Naples Revolt 1820
    • rebelled against spain and forced a constitution but was restored to power after Austrian Miitary intervened. 
  • Piedmont Revolt 1820
    • Led to civil war but failed
  • Papal States Revolt 1830
    • failed due to Austrian aid
  • It was clear to nationalists that uncoordinated carbonari movements were not strong enough.
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Young Italy Movement

  • Mazzini + The young italy movement 
    • Mazzini was a full time nationalist revolutionary forced into exhile fue to political actions as wanted a united Itally with a republican constitution. 
    • sought a strong nationalist force with religious views - Young Italy Movement
      • Appealed to a wide support base
      • motto - "Unity and Independance"
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1846 New Pope

  • Pope Pius IX was prepared for limited consessions but was not commited to reform.
    • First act was to release hundreds of political prisoners. 
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Failures of the 1848 revolutions

  • Palerma, Sicily revolt resulted in the defeat of Ferdinand I (Spanish) forces
  • Charles Albert (King of Sardinia) declared war on Austria. Was defeated in 1849, and abdicated in favour of Victor Emmanuel II (his son)
  • Papal states revolt resulted in battle to overthrow Pope Pius who fled
    • A republic under Mazzini was establised with Garibaldi as its defender. 
      • However french troops marched to restore the pope.
  • In Naples, Ferdinand I used the chaos to recover his authority by bombing Sicillian towns. 
  • They all failed however advances had been made:
    • Victor Emmanuel II succeded to the throne
    • Sardinia was being made modern
    • Defense of Rome by Garibaldi, who led a remarkable guerilla force.
    • Revealed Austria as an enemy of political change and the need for foreign aid to expell Austria. 
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Crimean War 1855-56/Paris Conference 1856

  • Victor Emmanuel II was eager to involve Sardinia with France + the UK in the war against Russia
  • At the Paris conference 1856 Cavour drew attention to Italy leading to the Pact of Plombieres 1858. 
  • Napoleon III would support Italy to drive out Austria, in return for the territories of Savoy and Nice. 
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Pact of Plombieres 1858

War with austria

  • Cavour provoked war with Austria in a way that suggested neither France nor Sardinia was at fault. (Pulled arms into Piedmont leading to an ultimatium from Austria to disarm which was refused).
  • France stepped in to stop Austria invading. 
    • At battle of Magenta and Solferno most of Lombardy was liberated.
  • Cavour employed Garibaldi as a guerrilla captian.
  • Piedmont did not secure Venetia. Napoleon III made an Armistace at Vallafranca

Cavour resigned

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1859 Deal

Cavour and Napoleon III struck another deal and agreed that if the Duchies were allowed to unite ith Sardinia, france would recieve Savoy and Nice. 

Napoleon III agreed on condition that it was what the people wanted. 

The results of the Plebiscities (the referendum) showed that people ere in favour. Since France supprted it, Austria couldnt do anything. Savoy + Nice were transfered to French rule. 

Cavours actions alienated many nationalist idealists + non piedmontese (inspired by Mazzini).

Rivalry between republicans + monarchists started to play a part

  • Mazzini was plotting against Cavour 
  • Garibaldi was a republican born in nice
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1860 Sicily Rebellion

  • Organised by Mazzini. Was the opportunity Garibaldi was waiting for, but was sujected to underhand politics.
  • 1000 picked volunters waited to sail to Sicily from Genoa. 
  • Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II encouraged Garibaldi in private but hindered him in public. 
    • Both were afraid of repercussions from Austria if officially involving Sardinia.
  • Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II let them sail but Cavour sent telegraph for Garibaldis arrent if made port in Sardinia. 
  • Landed in Sicily in 1860 with no resistncy from locals. This led to a chain of events that within a year led to an (incomplete united kingdom of Italy).
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The conquest of Naples, Sicily and the Papal State

  • To get to Naples Garibaldi needed permission from the British to cross the Straits of Messina. 
  • France proposed a joint anglo-french force to stop him
    • Publically Cavour requested the UK join France, but privatly sent an envoy to request the opposite. 
  • Publically Victor Emmanuel II demanded Garibaldi not to cross the Straits, but sent a private telegram encouraging him. 
  • Garibaldi crossed unstopped + once on mainland was welcomed and entered Naples unopposed. Mazzini now arrived in Naples adding to fears that a republic would be established in South Italy. 
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Monarchists Vs Republicanists.

  • Cavour risked Austria declaring war and advised Victor Emannuel II to invade the Papal Statesto delay Garribaldi. 
    • Aims behind this:
      • Prevent Garibaldi outshining the King
      • Prevent an attack on Rome which would incite war with France. 
  • In 1860 a  referendum was heald which showed a majority of the South wished to be part of Sardinia.
  • 1861 a new parliament at Turin declared the constitutional Kingdom of Italy. 
    • Cavour died 3 months later. 
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Venetia (was Austrian)

In 1866 Bismarck of Prussia persuaded Italy to ally her in a war against Austria ith promise of gaining Venetia. 

Lost and humiliated but still gained Venetia. 

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1862 There was a risk of civil war when Garibaldi + volunteers made a dash for rome only to be held up by Victor Emmanuel II Troops

1866 Napoleon III withdrew troops from Rome, only to return them when Garibaldi tried again. 

1870 Franco-Prussian war caused the permenant withdrawel of French troops from Rome, and as a result Rome fell. Finally Rome became part of the Kingdom of Italy

1929 Mussolini ended quarrel beteen Italy and the Papacy resulting in the recognition of the Pope having soverein rights over Vatican City. 

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