what is the sun made of?
helium and hydrogen
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what are the solar system planets?
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what is a planet?
a sizable object orbiting a star
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what is a moon?
a neutral object orbiting a planet
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how old is the universe?
14 billion years
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how old is the solar system?
4.6 billion years
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how old is the earth?
4.5 billion years
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what is the asteroids belt and where it locates?
it is thought to be the remains of a planet that failed to form when the solar system was formed, and it lies between mars and jupiter.
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what are asteroids?
rocky objects which failed to form a planet
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what are comets?
a celestial object consisting of a nucleus of ice and dust and, when near the sun, a ‘tail’ of gas and dust particles pointing away from the sun.
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what are meteorites?
fragments of rock which fall to earth from space
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how was the solar system formed?
Giant molecular cloud of gas and dust which collapsed under gravity
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what is the big bang?
the point were all matter and energy was compressed into a space billions of times smaller than a proton.
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what are carbonaceous chondrites made of and to which object its composition is similar?
water and organic compounds and it is similar to the sun
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what is the evidence for impact craters?
Tilted and inverted strata and The impact crater itself and Shocked quartz crystals.
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what is the method of dating used by geologists?
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is io too small to NOT have its own heat source?
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what is io?
the moon of jupiter
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what is the evidence that io is extremely volcanic?
lava flows covering craters formed in its early history
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where is thought to be the heat source of Io?
tidal heating-the result of the enormous gravity field of jupiter
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what is the moho discontinuity?
the boundary between the crust and the mantle
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what is the gutenberg discontinuity and where is located?
is a boundary making a change of material from metallic iron nickel to stony silicate material and changes state between the liquid outer core and the solid mantle, and it is located at 2900 km.
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what is the lehmann discontinuity and where is located?
it is a phase boundary between materials of the same composition but different state. it is a zone where the rocks change from all liquid in the outer core through a liquid-solid mix to all solid in the inner core. is located at 5100.
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what is the upper mantle characteristics?
it is located from 700 km to 35 km, it consists of solid silicates and the main rock is peridotite.
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what is the lower mantle characteristics?
it is located from 2900 km to 700km, it consists of the the same type of silicate material as the stony meteorite. it is solid because s waves can travel through it and p waves increase in velocity.
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what is the outer core characteristics?
is liquid iron nickel.seismic waves give evidence as S waves can't pass through liquid and they don't pass through the outer core.P waves slow down in velocity due to reduced rigidity.pressure in the outer core is less than in the inner core.
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what is the inner core characteristics?
it is solid due to extreme pressure. seismic waves can move through the inner core. it is a mixture of iron and some nickel. it is at 5100-6371 km.
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where is the outer core located?
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what is the composition of the oceanic crust?
Fe(iron) and Mg(magnesium), basalt, dolerite and gabbro
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what is the composition of the continental crust?
Al(Aluminium) and Si(silica),granitic rocks, igneous and sedimentary rocks(deformed)
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what is the average density of the oceanic crust?
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what is the average density of the continental crust?
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where is the outer core located?
at 2900-5100 km
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what is the temperature of the astenophere at depths between 75 km and 250 km?
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how much is the peridotite melted in the astenosphere?
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is the litosphere cool enough to prevent partial melting?
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where is the shadow zone located?
between 103° and 142°
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what is the earth's density?
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what is the geothermal gradient?
The geothermal gradient is the rate of increase in temperature per unit depth in the Earth.
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how kimberlite have provided evidence for the composition of the mantle?
volcanic activity brings up material from a great depth by ripping rocks from the sides of the pipe w
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what are the fragments of the upper mantle called?
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After a Meteorite Impact, what is the name given to the inverted rock?
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Where is the Mohorovicic Discontinuity located?
35 km between crust and upper mantle
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Can Magnetic Stripes found in the ocean crust be used as evidence for Sea Floor Spreading?
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At what depth do S waves stop moving?
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What is the name of the zone in a subducting plate where the most Earthquake Focus' are?
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What is the scale called that is measured on the observed intensity of an Earthquake?
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What device measures the ground motion?
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what is the average of the ocean crust?
200 million years
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what is the average age of the continental crust?
4 billion years
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what is a seamount?
a submarine basalt volcano rising at least 1000 km above the ocean floor without reaching sea levels.
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where is the ring of fire and what is it?
in the pacific ocean, and they are chain of volcanic islands
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when did the K-T impact event occur?
65 million years ago
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what is a batholith?
a large body of magma
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in what direction does slate cleave?
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what are seismic waves?
a wave that travels through the earth. The particles of a rock vibrate, transmitting energy from one particle to another.
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what is a body wave?
waves that travel through the interior of the earth.
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what does the richter scale measure?
the magnitude of the earthquake by recording the amplitude of the earthquake waves.
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what are the direct evidence for the structure of the earth?
volcanic eruption (crust) and mantle xenoliths (mantle)
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what is paleomagnetism?
is ancient magnetism preserved in rocks
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what is a magnetic anomaly?
is a value for the earth's magnetic field that is different from the expected value.
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what is a magnetic inclination?
is the angle of the dip of the lines of a magnetic field.
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what is the apparent polar wandering?
the theory that suggests the poles have been travelling all over the world
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what is remanent magnetism?
is magnetism shown by rocks due to the alignment of their magnetic minerals according to the earth's magnetic field at the time of their formation.
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what may cause magnetic reversals to take place?
when the north and south poles reverse
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how magnetic reversals can provide evidence for sea floor evidence?
magnetic stripe formed in the mid-ocean ridge and moved apart
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how some rocks retain paleomagnetism permanently?
iron minerals align parallel to the magnetic field as the rock cools fixes
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what are the characteristics of gas giants?
Relatively large/Rocky core/Many moons, satellites and ring systems
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what are the characteristics of earth giants?
iron core/ shield volcanoes/Relatively small/Relatively denser with a weaker gravity
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what are the classifications for earthquakes' focus?
shallow-focus 0-70km/ intermediate 70-300km/ deep-focus 300-700 km
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what is the depth of the earth?
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what is the focus ?
is the point within the earth where the earthquake originates
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what is the epicentre ?
is the point in the earth's surface directly above the focus.
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what is a discontinuity?
changes in the composition of the Earth
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how many types of surface waves there is ?
2: L and Rayleigh waves
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what are rayleigh waves caracterized for?
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L waves are known for?
for being the most destructive type of seismic wave.
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what are the physical effects of earthquakes?
liquefaction/tsunami/ damage to structure/aftershocks/landslips/ground movement
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what is stress?
is the force per unit area acting on or within a body
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what is strain?
is the change in shape of a body in response to stress
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what is a tsunami?
is a water which is set up at the same time, by energy, as an earthquake but it is not a seismic wave.
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what is a tsunami caused by?
it is caused by a bodily displacement of a large volume of water by the bodily displacement of a large section of crust on the sea floor.
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what is the formula for the velocity of a P wave?
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what happens during a landslip?
on steeper slopes made unstable by high rainfall, the vibration may trigger landslides and mudflows partly assisted due to liquefaction
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what is liquefaction?
the vibration in the bedrock which is transmitted into superficial deposits at the surface
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what are aftershocks?
a smaller earthquake following the main shock of a large earthquake
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what is damage to structure?
Movement of the ground separates one part of the structure from another
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what happens when there is damage to the structure?
Bridges built in sections separate from their supporting piers/Bricks and stonework separate along the mortar, causing walls to collapse
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what is the seismic gap theory?
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what is the theory applied to?
The theory is applied to sections of a fault which have been quiet for some time (the gap between active areas), the fault is locked and the stress is steadily builds up, ready for a high magnitude event.
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what are the methods to reduce the impact of the earthquakes?
Planning/Building design/Ground or base isolation systems/Resisting shear forces/Absorbing sway/
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what happens in planning?
First the risk is assessed by forecasting the likely number and magnitude of future earthquakes. Local authorities may ban buildings from the fault line , from areas of alluvial deposits which may suffer liquefaction, and areas liable to landslides.
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describe the method of building design?
they are designed to protect people, from total collapse, falling structures and broken glass.Wooden structures are flexible and accept a certain amount of strain. For larger buildings, steel-reinforced concrete is safer than bricks and masonry.
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what are the methods for predicting earthquakes?
changes in water levels/changes in ground levels/animal behaviour
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what is the evidence for continental drifting?
fossils/mountain chains/rock types/the fit of the continents/glaciation/paleomagnetism
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what is continental drift?
is the large-scale horizontal movement of continents during geological time
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describe fossil evidence?
if africa and south america have always been separated, they should have a different fossil record. animals and plants such as mesosaurus, glossopteris, lystrosaurus,etc. lived in land or shallow sea so it was unable for them to spread across the oc
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what is a mountain chain?
they are linear features hundreds of kilometres long. across the join of the continents of south america and africa the mountain belts have the same trend/the mountains across the join have the same age/across the join the mountains have the same roc
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what are the reasons for mountain chains to be evidence of continental drifting?
across the join of the continents of south america and africa the mountain belts have the same trend/the mountains across the join have the same age/across the join the mountains have the same rock types.
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what are the reasons for rock types to be evidence of continental drifting?
rocks have the same characteristics/ they have the same age/example: carboniferous tillite
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explain the fit of the continents as a reason for continental drifting?
the continents of south america and africa fit along the coastlines, but there are a few gaps due to erosion and a few overlaps due to younger rocks deposited.
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what is the continental shelf(oceanic feature)?
although below sea level at the moment, the shelf is part of the continent and is approximately 200 m under water
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what is a deep oceanic trench(oceanic feature)?
very deep (up to 11 km) linear valley in the ocean parallel to fold mountains and island arcs.
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what is a mid ocean ridge(oceanic feature)?
an elongated ridge in the middle of the ocean, rising 2 or 3 km above the abyssal plain and up to 1000 km wide, built of basalt extruded at the constructive plate boundary.
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what is an abyssal plain(oceanic feature)?
deep oceanic basin with a depth of 3-5 km covered with red clays, calcareous oozes and silliceous oozes. this is an aseismic areas meaning that there is no earthquakes.
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what is a continental slope (oceanic feature)?
they are steeper (average 4°) slopes of the continental margin between the edge of the continental shelf at about 200 m and where it merges into the abyssal plain at 1500-3000m. deep submarine canyons cut across the slopes.
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what is the continental shelf (continental feature)?
is the area around the edge of continental landmasses, which gently slopes to a depth of 150-200 km before giving way to the steeper continental slope.
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what is a fold mountain?
linear chain of high formed from folded continental crust at a convergent plate margin.
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what is the continental shield?
an area of ancient continental crust (over 570 Ma) consisting of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
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what is a major rift valley?
is a linear valley between mountains formed between faults by crustal extension
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what is a divergent plate margin (constructive plate margin)
when two tectonic plates move apart
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what are processes occuring at divergent (constructive) plate margins?
pillow lavas /black smokers/sea floor spreading/harmonic tremors/mid-oceanic ridges/convection currents/formation of mafic volcanoes/rift valley/hotspots such as iceland, the canary islands/shallow focus earthquakes
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what are conservative plate boundaries?
is when two plate boundaries slide laterally past each other
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what is the main example of a conservative plate boundaries?
the san andreas fault
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which plates involve the san andreas fault?
the pacific plate and the north american plate
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what are the processes in the san andreas fault?
shallow focus earthquakes
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what is convergent (destructive) plate margin?
is when two plates move towards each other and a collision takes place
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what are the processes occuring at a convergent plate boundary?
batholiths/fold mountains/the benioff zone/ volcanic activity/subduction
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what are the three types of convergent plate margin?
continental-continental/ oceanic-oceanic/ oceanic-continental
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what is a trench?
they are long, narrow, linear features that form the deepest parts that form the deepest parts of the earth's surface
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what is the form and shape of pillow lavas?
pillow and bulbous shape(rounded structures)
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how are pillow lavas formed?
Formed by eruption of lava under water, the outside of each pillow shape cooled quickly. Each pillow cooled in layers.
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what type of rock is formed in the pillow lavas?
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what are harmonic tremors?
they are frequent, small tremors less than magnitude 2 that are caused by rising magma and they occur below volcano craters.
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what are black smokers?
they are hot springs occurring in the narrow flanks of a mid oceanic ridge
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what are emitted from a series of small vents of the black smokers?
high speed jets of very hot solutions (350°C)
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what makes the characteristics black waters of the black smokers?
wters rich in sulfur, with iron, gold,copper and zinc being dissolved below rocks
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what are the convection currents?
is the hypothesis that states that hot, low density material rises upwards. this then flows sideways and starts cooling down, and as it cools down the material becomes denser and it sinks down.
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what is sea floor spreading?
is the hypothesis in which basaltic magma from the mantle rises to create new ocean floor at the mid ocean ridge
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what happens in the continental-continental convergent plate boundary?
two continental plates of similar composition and density meet under the himalayas causing the subduction of the indian plate to the eurasian plate creating the himalayas mountain range
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what happens to the convection cells near a divergent plate boundary?
the current stops rising and it spreads out on either side of the MOR leading eventually to sea floor spreading
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what happens to the convection cells near a convergent plate boundary?
when the two of the lateral currents meet at the subduction zone one or both start to sink as they are much more cooler and denser
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how were granitic batholiths formed in the himalayas?
they were formed due to the melting base of the continental crust , which created sillicic magma that slowly rose through the overlying crust to form granitic batholiths
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what was produced during the subduction of the indian and eurasian plate?
shallow focus and intermediate focus earthquakes
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what are the processes occurring at convergent continental-continental plate margin?
batholiths/ shallow and intermediate focus earthquakes/subduction/fold mountain
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what are the processes occurring at a convergent oceanic-oceanic plate boundary?
partial melting of the oceanic crust/ volcanic activity creating volcanic islands arc/ the metamorphisation of the rocks due to high temperature and pressure
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what happens in a convergent oceanic-oceanic plate boundary?
the older/slower/colder oceanic plate gets carried downwards into an area of higher temperature
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what are the processes occurring at a convergent oceanic-continental plate margin?
large batholiths formed from melted continental crust and intruded deep into the core of the fold mountains/ regional metamorphosis occur due to the heat and pressure affecting the rocks in the deeper parts of the mountain chains/
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why are ophiolite suites trapped within the mountain fold?
because segments of the oceanic crust may be broken at the subduction zone
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how are fold mountains formed?
they are formed due to compression of the continental crust and the sediments scrapped off the subducting plate
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how are the enormous strato volcanoes of the Andes formed?
when the sillicic magma mix with some rising mafic magma to create large volumes of intermediate magma that eventually will form the strato volcanoes
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what happens in the convergent oceanic-continental plate margin?
the oceanic plate gets subducted to the continental.
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what is a hot spot?
is a volcano within a plate which is the surface expression of a mantle plume
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what is a mantle plume ?
is a stationary area of high heat flow in the mantle, which rises from great depth and produces magma that feds volcanoes from hot spots.
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what is a diapir?
a body of lower density buoyant material rising upwards in the same way hot wax does in a lava lamp
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what are the evidence for mantle plumes?
seismic tomography/ geochemistry
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what is seismic tomography?
is a computer imaging tecnique based on seismic wave velocities
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how do you calculate the rate of plate movement and sea floor spreading?
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what are the explanations for the pattern of the hawaiian emperor chain(towards the northwest the basaltic shield volcanoes get older and m,ore eroded)?
the pacific plate has moved towards the northwest over a stationary plume
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what are examples of hot spots?
hawaii/ the canary islands/ the azores islands/st helena and ascension
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where does slaty cleavage happens?
in incompetent rocks like shale
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what is the evidence for sea floor spreading?
volcanic activity at the MOR due to rising magma from the upper mantle/positive and negative magnetic anomalies at MOR as Earth’s magnetic field has reversed
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what is the evidence for sea floor spreading? pt 2
sediment thickens with distance from MOR as new oceanic crust forms at the MOR/positive gravity anomaly over the MOR due to rising magma below volcanoes
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why are magnetic anomalies an evidence for sea floor spreading?
because the pattern of reversals is symmetrical on the two sides of the MOR meaning that the crust on the two sides is moving apart as basalt erupts at the ridge to form new oceanic crust which will spread out on both sides
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Other cards in this set
what are the solar system planets?
what is a planet?
what is a moon?
how old is the universe?