Deformation of rocks

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  • Deformation of rocks
    • Stress and strain
      • Stress = Forces applied to a rock by Earth movements or the weight of overlying rocks
      • Strain = describes the deformation caused by the applied forces
      • Factors affecting stress and strain
        • Higher temperature = more plastic rocks
          • Fold and not fault even if rock is brittle at high temps
        • Pressure (confining) and depth = Stronger rocks (difficult to deform)
        • Time
          • Pressure applied over short time period = Brittle rocks
          • Pressure applied over long period of time = plastic deformation
    • The relationship between forces and geological structures
      • Tensional forces
        • Result in fracturing and crustal extension
        • Is displacement = Structure is a fault
        • No displacement = Structure is a joint
      • Compressive forces
        • Result is fracture or folding, both result in shortening of the Earth's crust
        • Cold = fracture and fault
        • Warm = more likely to fold
      • Shear forces
        • Deformation in one place (Normally horizontal
        • May result in faults or folds


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