PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 STUDIES

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Atkinson and Shriffin, 1968
The Multi-Store Model of Memory
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Miller
Participants given strings of unrelated digits that increase by one digit each time, the digit span is measured when participants can no longer recall digits in correct sequence. Found that STM capacity is limited - digit span 7+/-2
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Peterson and Peterson
Participants briefly shown consonant trigram, rehearsal prevented, asked to recall trigram after an interval from 3 to 18 seconds. Found STM has limited duration - 80% of trigrams recalled correctly after 3 seconds, fewer than 10% after 18secs
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Conrad
Some ppts shown random sequence of 6 similar sounding consonants, others 6 different sounding. Participants asked to write down in correct order. Found STM mainly uses acoustic coding - ppts found it more difficult to recall similar consonants
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Bahrick
Tested high-school graduates on memory of former schoolmates - ppts performed well up to 34yrs after they left, performance generally better on recognition tasks over recall tasks, performance declined after 47yrs
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Baddeley - LTM Encoding
4 word catergories: 1) sound similar 2) don't sound similar 3) mean same 4) don't mean same - 10 words from each list to ppts, prevented rehearsal, recall tested after 20mins. LTM codes semantically - ppts performed worst on words similar in meaning
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Baddeley and Hitch, 1974
Ppts given dual task (reasoning task and reading aloud), found ppts could do both tasks very well - STM must have different components that can process more than one type of info at a time
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Baddeley et al. 1975
Ppts given brief presentation of list of either short or long words and asked to recall list immediately in correct order, ppts could recall more short words than long words - concluded loop can hold as many items as can be said in 1.5-2secs
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Baddeley et al. 1973
Ppts given dual task (tracking task + visual imagery task) - much poorer at dual task than at each task performed alone - concluded both tasks needed to be done in visuo-spatial sketchpad - competing for same limited resources
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KF Case Study
Suffered brain damage in motorcycle accident - damaged STM. Impairment mainly for verbal information - memory for visual information largely unaffected. Shows there are separate STM components for visual information and verbal information
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Clive Wearing Case Study
Cannot rehearse new information or access long term memory but his STM is relatively normal - demonstrates that STM and LTM are different stores independent of eachother
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Loftus 1979 - Anxiety
Ppts outside lab heard either friendly discussion + man with pen or hostile discussion + man with bloody knife, then asked to identify man - ppts witnessing violent scene less accurate in identification - heightened anxiety caused weapon effect
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Christianson and Hubinette, 1993
Looked at bank robbery victims/bystanders - victims of crime who'd been subjected to greatest levels of anxiety more detailed and accurate in recall than bystanders - people react differently to anxiety inducing events in real life rather than lab
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Flin et al. 1992
Asked children and adults questions about incident one day after event and five months after - recall similar for adults and children after 1 day but worse for children after 5 months
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Gordon et al. 2001
Reviewed number of studies of child witnesses - children can recall accurately and in detail but more susceptible to misleading info than adults
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Yarney 1984
Young and elderly adults shown film of staged event and asked questions about what they'd seen - 80% of elderly adults failed to mention key detail compared to 20% of young adults
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Loftus and Palmer 1974
Ppts asked q's about film of car crash - all asked same question about speed of car but different verb used e.g.smashed, contacted."smashed" question produced highest estimate of speed and "contacted" lowest estimate
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Loftus 1975 - Misleading info
Ppts shown film of events leading to car crash - one group asked q's consistent with film, others asked about barn (no barn in film). When recalling film, 17% of misled group saw barn, 3% of others said they'd seen it
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Geiselman et al. 1985
Ppts shown video of simulated crime, recall tested by cognitive interview, standard interview or hypnosis - cognitive info prompted most info
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Fisher et al. 1990
Real detectives trained to use enhanced cognitive interview with real crime witnesses - cognitive interview increased amount of recalled info
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Milne and Bull 2002
Tested each of cognitive techniques singly or in combo - all 4 techniques used singly produced more info than standard interview but CR with RE most effective combination
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Schaffer and Emerson, 1964
Observation of 60 Glasgow babies - 4 in 10 babies formed first attachment to someone who didn't feed them but played with them
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Harlow and Harlow 1958
Baby monkeys separated from mother given cloth monkey and wire monkey which gave food - baby monkeys formed attachment to cloth monkey - comfort more important than simply providing food
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Bowlby's theory
Evolutionary explanation of attachment - attachment is instinctive behaviour - evolved as helps babies survive. Form 1 attachment which is most important, attachment must be formed before 3yrs and attachment affects later adult relationships
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Mary Ainsworth 1970
Strange Situation - observation of mother leaving baby, then returning, and stranger approaching baby. Measured separation anxiety and stranger distress. Avoidant, Secure, Resistant - type depended on how quickly/sensitively mother responded to baby
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van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg 1988
Meta-analysis of 32 Strange Situation studies in different countries - secure attachment most common, high avoidant % in UK and Germany, high resistant % in Israel and Japan
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Robertson and Robertson 1969
John study - PDD response to separation identified - Protest, Despair, Detachment
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Koluchova 1972
Studied twin boys who suffered extreme privation - age 7 unable to talk, terrified of adults and had severe health problems - after treatment/rehab, boys in permanent home, developed normal language skills and attended mainstream schools
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Skuse 1984
Two girls suffered privation from 2 1/2-3 1/2 - no speech + social skills - Louise developed normal language skills and started school, Mary showed severe problems, went to special school
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Tizard and Hodges 1984/89
65 children in care home followed up to 16 - majority of adopted + restored children had close attachment by 8/16 but struggled with peer relationships - contradicts Bowlby's sensitive period claim but shows may struggle with relationships
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Rutter et al. 2007
Romanian children - those adopted after 6 months more likely to show disinhibited attachment patterns than this adopted at earlier age
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Andersson 1992
Studied social + cognitive progress of children at Swedish daycare - children who attended were able to get on better with other children, more sociable + outgoing
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Schindler et al. 1998
Studied children at US daycare over 2 weeks, measured time spent playing alone, alongside or co-operatively with other children - positive correlation between amount of time in daycare and time spent playing co-operatively with other children
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DiLalla 1988
Negtive correlation between amount of time spent in daycare and pro-social play
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Campbell et al. 2000 (Peer relations)
Compared Swedish children who attended daycare between 18months - 3 1/2 yrs with home-raised, following until 15yrs - children who spent short days in nursery more socially competent than home-raised, competence around same level from 3 1/2 to 15yrs
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Campbell et al. 2000 (Aggression)
Compared Swedish children who attended daycare between 18months - 3 1/2 yrs with home-raised, following until 15yrs - Children under 3 who spend long days in nursery have more negative interactions with others and less socially competent
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Belsky 2006
Data analysed from longitudinal study of 1000 US children followed from birth - DC showed higher levels of problem behaviours than non-DC children e.g. aggression towards peers and disobedience towards adults/teachers
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Maccoby and Lewis
More hours in day care correlated with more conflict with teachers
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National Institute of Child Health and Development, 2003
Examined behaviour of large sample of 4 1/2 yrs, reports collected from parents, teachers, carers - more time child spent in DC, greater amounts of problem behaviours, including disobedience and aggression
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Card 2

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Participants given strings of unrelated digits that increase by one digit each time, the digit span is measured when participants can no longer recall digits in correct sequence. Found that STM capacity is limited - digit span 7+/-2

Back

Miller

Card 3

Front

Participants briefly shown consonant trigram, rehearsal prevented, asked to recall trigram after an interval from 3 to 18 seconds. Found STM has limited duration - 80% of trigrams recalled correctly after 3 seconds, fewer than 10% after 18secs

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Some ppts shown random sequence of 6 similar sounding consonants, others 6 different sounding. Participants asked to write down in correct order. Found STM mainly uses acoustic coding - ppts found it more difficult to recall similar consonants

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Tested high-school graduates on memory of former schoolmates - ppts performed well up to 34yrs after they left, performance generally better on recognition tasks over recall tasks, performance declined after 47yrs

Back

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