Social Psychology: Gender (2)

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What is aggression?
Acts intended to harm or injure an unwilling victim
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What is instrumental/proactive aggression?
the threat or infliction of injury is a means to some extraneous end
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What are the eight goals or instrumental/proactive aggression?
Rank, Face, Justice, Conformity, Culture of honour, coercive power, gaining compliance, negative reinforcement
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According to Daly & Wilson 1988, how is aggression adaptive in relation to rank?
to secure and maintain scarce resources such as mates, territory and food
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What is RHP and how do humans show they have it?
Resource holding potential, through jobs and wealth
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How do males establish status when RHP is low?
physical dominance and aggression
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Where RHP is low, how do males establish status?
physical dominance
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How did Felson 1992 explain instrumental aggression?
Face (social integrity) and an escalating conflict spiral
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What is Hobbes' social contract 1951?
criminal law averts a war of all against all, because the state acts for the aggrieved party
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When is self help justice more common?
where formal law is not present, both parties know each other, both parties are of the lowest social status, parties have been engaged in law breaking
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How did Wolfgang & Ferracuti 1967 explain instrumental aggression?
conformity to subcultures of violence which are associated with increased stress levels and aggressive reactivity
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How did Nisbett 1993 explain instrumental aggression?
culture of honour (e.g. Southern American States)
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In support of the Culture of Honour theory, what are Southern (state) Americans more likely to do when aggravated?
believe their masculine reputation was threatened, show a rise in cortisol and testosterone, engage in dominating behaviour
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What is coercive power?
When an individual tries to influence another though restraint, transport, immobilisation or injury of the target when bribes manipulation fail to produce compliance
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What is negative reinforcement?
when a behaviour is strengthened due to stopping, removing or avoiding a negative outcome or aversive stimulus
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What is expressive aggression?
when impelling forces (stress, anger, arousal, frustration) cannot be obtained by opposing inhibitory forces)
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How did Freud explain expressive aggression?
Catharsis - the ego is weak and unable to suppress primitive urges of the id
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Which theory of aggression did Dollard et al 1939 propose?
Frustration-aggression theory: aggression always results from frustration (interference with a rewarding goal)
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According to Dollard, what does frustration level depend on?
strength of drive state, number of frustrating incidents, whether the goal is wholly or partially blocked
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According to Dollard, what does aggression depend on?
arbitrariness of frustration, whether subsequent account of frustration is offered, whether aggression will end the frustration
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Which theory of aggression did Berkowitz 1989 propose?
cognitive neo-associationist theory
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In relation to the cognitive neo-associationist theory, what causes negative affect (triggers aggressive tendencies)?
pain, noise, heat, crowding, attack, anger, upset, humiliation
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What factors can enhance or diminish the impact of negative affects?
associated conditions such as priming, secondary cognitive appraisal, inhibition/effortful control
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How can self control be operationalised?
delayed gratification, simon says, compliance with maternal prohibition, the stroop task
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Aggression is a feature of ADHD and CD, which lobe are these associated with?
frontal lobe (executive function) deficits: mainly governs inhibitory control
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In many species, which part of the brain controls aggressive behaviour?
the hypothalamus (part of the limbic system)
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What is the role of serotonin in aggression?
It is the neurotransmitter implicated in inhibition an prevention of over reacting to situations
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What did Brown et al find in relation to aggression and serotonin?
Spinal fluid levels of 5-HT are negatively correlated with a lifetime history of violence
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What did Parsey et al 2002 find in relation to serotonin and sex differences in aggression?
Females have significantly higher binding capacity than men, especially in the frontal cortex (responsible for behavioural inhibition)
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How is system 1 of the dual process theory of behavioural control characterised?
emotional, impulsive, reflexive, fast, automatic, associationist, bottom up, low order
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How is system 2 of the dual process theory of behavioural control characterised?
unemotional, strategic, reflective, flexible, slower, effortful, symbolic, top down, higher order
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What does anger motivate?
aggression
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What does depression motivate?
avoidance
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In which two ways does system 1 control behaviour?
approach (reward sensitivity) and avoidance (punishment sensitivity)
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Is low serotonergic function a deficit in system 1 or system 2?
system 2 (higher order cool system, executive control)
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How does serotonin affect emotional reactions?
high serotonin levels increase top down control of emotional reactions
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Card 2

Front

What is instrumental/proactive aggression?

Back

the threat or infliction of injury is a means to some extraneous end

Card 3

Front

What are the eight goals or instrumental/proactive aggression?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

According to Daly & Wilson 1988, how is aggression adaptive in relation to rank?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is RHP and how do humans show they have it?

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