Developmental Key Terms

  • Created by: Psych951
  • Created on: 26-04-19 15:00
Registration of sensory input as interaction with the physical world stimulates the sense organs
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Organisation, identification and interpretation of sensations to form a mental representation
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Mental representation
Patterns of neural activity that refer to aspects of the external world
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Perceptual narrowing
Gradual worsening of infant perceptual capabilities e.g. infants from 6mo are very good at facial recognition, but over time they get worse
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Bottom-up perception
Perception informed by incoming sensory input e.g. colour
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Top-down perception
Perception informed by cognition e.g. emotion, experience
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Empiricist perspective on perception
Infants receive sensory input however must learn how to perceive it (ability to learn is innate)
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Constructivist perspective on perception
Perception of light is innate however the remaining ability is constructed knowledge from reflex activity and higher-level activity and experiences
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Nativist perspective on perception
Infants have core mental modules that allows perceptual organisation to be built it
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Object Permanence
Understanding that if an object is out of sight, it still exists
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A-not-B error
Error that infants make prior to 12mo where they fail to search for an object in B if it is repeatedly hidden in A first
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Dynamic systems theory
Variability in tasks over time should be used to understand capabilities due to interaction streams of maturation
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Natural pedagogy
A-not-B error is due to the infant receiving social cues that are used by the infant to behave how they think the adult wants them to behave
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Intermodal perception
Ability to recognise an experience familiar to one modality through a new modality
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Intercessory redundancy hypothesis
Experiences allow comparative input to refine sense, moving from amodal to intermodal state
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High-amplitude sucking
Use pacifier with electrical circuit that enables infants to control their own stimulation, by sucking based on their preferences
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Evoked potentials
Changes in brain wave patterns which indicate sensing stimuli
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Repeatedly present stimulus until gaze adverts, then present novel stimulus and if gaze returns, then infant has perceived the two separately
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Set of principles or ideals that help individuals distinguish right from wrong and act on this distinction
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Infant prosocial tendency
Infants show spontaneous helping, comforting and sharing behaviours
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In-group moral bias
Infants consistently prefer similar people and good behaviour, but If an out-group is primed then the moral preference for good behaviour disappears towards out-group members
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Committed compliance
Infants are eager to cooperate with responsive parents and embrace their rules and internalise responses to right and wrong
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Moral judgements
Preferences and expectations held by infants that demonstrate understanding of good and bad, and preference for moral outcomes
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Moral cognition
Moral reasoning to evaluate whether acts are right or wrong
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Piagetian moral development
Moral development parallels cognitive development and is self-constructed. Pre-moral, heteronomous and autonomous stages
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Kohlberg's moral development
Emphasised moral reasoning of children, depending on cognitive ability.
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Kohlberg's pre-conventional level
Morality dependent on consequences
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Kohlberg's conventional level
Morality dependent on obedience to rules and social expectations
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Kohlberg's post-conventional level
Morality dependent on broad principles of justice and ethics
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Social conventions
Issues of social expectations and coordination of social interactions
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Moral rules
Consistent issues of justice and rights
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Pro-social behaviour
Actions intended to benefit another
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Selfless concern for others expressed through prosocial acts, with no anticipated reward
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Distributive justice
Appreciation of fairness emerges early in infancy that guides behaviour based on fair allocation of resources
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Intend to harm another who is motivated to avoid harm
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Resisting temptation
A key moral rule to learn behavioural control in the absence of authority
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Idea that we are an individual different from other things
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Biological determinism of gender
Differences in psychology of men and women are due to biological differences
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Social constructivism of gender
Differences in psychology of men and women are due to socialisation differences
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Biological classification of a man or woman determined by genital, chromosomes etc.
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Social attributes associated with men and women (masculinity/femininity)
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Gender identity
How one feels (categorical self-concept)
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Intersex babies
Born with mixture of male and female biological gender determinants
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Gender socialisation
Expectations of male/female behaviour influence interactions with infants and shape their gender identity
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Gender role standard
Value or behaviour considered more appropriate for one sex
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Gender-based division of labour
Idea that females are encouraged to employ an expressive role and men an instrumental role
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Extreme male brain
Baron-Cohen proposes that male brain has good motor and spatial skills but bad empathy, and females are the opposite, and that this brain development is due to a combination of biological development and socialisation
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Evolutionary theory of gender
Different evolutionary pressures created fundamental differences in domains that faced different adaptive problems
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Social learning theory of gender
Children are actively encouraged to adopt gender appropriate behaviour through reinforcement and observational learning
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Kohlberg's cognitive development theory of gender
Gender role development relies on cognitive development, and once children have moved through identity, stability and consistency stages, then they acquire gender-typed behaviour
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Gender schema theory
Gender identity creates desire for categorical-gender information which creates gender schemas that guides thinking and behaviour
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Biopsychosocial model of gender
Nature-nurture feedback loop of interacting factors as early experiences affect brain organisation which impacts responses to future events
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Gender mosaic model
Proposes that all of us are a combination of a male and female brain, and that there are more similarities between genders than differences
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Organisation, identification and interpretation of sensations to form a mental representation



Card 3


Patterns of neural activity that refer to aspects of the external world


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Card 4


Gradual worsening of infant perceptual capabilities e.g. infants from 6mo are very good at facial recognition, but over time they get worse


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Perception informed by incoming sensory input e.g. colour


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