Psychology- Biopsychology

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: FireDwarf
  • Created on: 28-10-13 13:36
What are the two control systems to respond to the enviroment?
Nervous system and endocrine
1 of 74
What are the two main sub-systems in the nervous system?
Central Nervous system and peripheral system
2 of 74
What is the CNS?
brain & spinal cord
3 of 74
What is the PNS?
PNS is the neurons that carry messages to and from the CNS.
4 of 74
2 systems that break down from the PNS? 2 Systems that then break down from that?
Autonomic & somatic , Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
5 of 74
3 diffrent types of neurons?
Motor, sensory and interconnecting (relay)
6 of 74
Motor Neurons?
Motor Neurons carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord to the organs and muscles in the body (effectors)
7 of 74
Structure of a motor neuron?
Cell body with dendrites branching off it. Axon carries nerve pulses away from the cell body. Special cells called Schwann cells form a insulating layer (myelin sheath) . Axon divides into synaptic terminals.
8 of 74
What is a dendrite?
A branch like structure which have a large surface area which allows it to connect with other neurons and carry impules towards the cell body.
9 of 74
What two things connect to carry an impulse? Do they actually connect?
Synaptic terminal from one neuron to the dendrite of another. They do not connect, there is a small gap called the synapse.
10 of 74
Sensory neuron?
Carry messages from the receptors in the body (PNS) to the brain and spinal cord.
11 of 74
What is a receptor? How do they work?
Muscles, joints, skin etc. They detect physical or chemical changes in the body and relay these messages via the sensory neurons to the CNS.
12 of 74
Interconnecting Neuron?
Recieve messages from the sensory neuron and pass them to other relay neurons or motor neurons.
13 of 74
Where are they found?
Spinal cord, brain or the visual system.
14 of 74
Reflex arc?
Knee-jerk reflex- hammer hits kness, receptors pick up the change in conditions (PNS) which conveys a message to sensory neurons. Message recieves the CNS where it connects to a relay neuron, transfers message to motor neuron causing a
15 of 74
muscle (effector) to provide a responce.
16 of 74
What is a synapse?
Special gap between the end of one neuron and the dendrities of another
17 of 74
What do they do?
They allow electronic messages to travel from one neuron to another.
18 of 74
How does it work?
The imprulse arrives at a pre-synaptic terminal which triggers the release of a neurotransmitter.
19 of 74
What is a neurotramsitter?
A neurotransmitter is a chemical that diffuses the synapse.
20 of 74
How fast must it be transmitted and why?
Taken up immediantly otherwise its either broken down by enzymes or re-absorbed back into the terminal.
21 of 74
How can neurotramsitters efect our health?
They can either cause an increase or decrease in the firiing of a cell. Inhibitory or excitatory way.. This can cause too much or too little infomation to be tramsitted causing symptons.
22 of 74
Schizthenia is a result of too much dopamine being fired. Can be controlled by blocking receptors cells for dopamine.
23 of 74
The study of Phineas Gage
24 of 74
To expalin Phineas Cage's change in personality.
25 of 74
Worked for a railroad company, suffered a accident during an explosion. Causeda iro pole to go through Cage's left cheek, exiting his skull and brain from top of head. Pole found meters away with parts of brain.
26 of 74
He surivived and looked to regain his railway job. However, he was not being employed due to personality changes. He was now rude and bositerous from kind and reserved.
27 of 74
Demostrated the complexity of psychological proccesses that occur in the brain.
28 of 74
Generalization of findings from one case study.
29 of 74
what does localization of cortical function mean?
Specific areas of the cerebral cortex that are assosiated with praticular physical and psychological functions
30 of 74
Therefore what does this show?
Diffrent parts of the cortical are assosiated with diffrent functions
31 of 74
What is lateralisation of the cortical function?
Where a praticular hemisphere is assosiated with functions
32 of 74
How has this helped us?
it allows us to get a deeper understanding of the brain which allows us to further get a understanding of human behaviour. We can explore the brain using medical technology and identify which parts are triggered by behaviour.
33 of 74
What are the three concentric layers of the human brain?
Central core (primitive and involentery behaviours), limbric system (emotions, cerebrum (higher interlectual proccesses)
34 of 74
Central core
Brain stem, controls sleeping, breathing, sexual behaviour. Includes structures such as the hypothalamus. Hypothalamus regulates eating drinking, sexual behaviours as well as the endocrine system to maintaine homostasis.
35 of 74
Limbic system
Contains structures such as the hippocampus. Hippocampus is thought to be connected to memory. (evidence HM- removed to treat epilepsy- suffered amnesia)
36 of 74
Cerbral cortex- grey due to cell bodies. Below it is the myelinated axons (white). Sensory systems send messages to and from this cerebral cortex.
37 of 74
Cerberum is composed of right and left hemispheres which are connected by fibres (corpus callosum). This enables messages to enter the right hemisphere and be send to the left and vice versa. Each hemisphere is then further divided.
38 of 74
What are the 4 sections of each hemisphere (lobes).
Frontal lobes (awarness for the enviorment), parietal lobe (sensory and motor movements), temporal lobe (auditory ability and memory), occipital lobe (vision).
39 of 74
Other areas?
Motor, somoatosensory, Visual, auditory
40 of 74
Motor & somasensory area
Both found in the pariteal lobe. Motor resposible for movements that are voluntary. Right side by left hemipshere and vice versa. Damage- impared movement.
41 of 74
Somosensory is in charge of responding to the heat, cold, touch , pain of body movement. Diffrent amounts of it responds to its use and sensitivity.
42 of 74
Visual area
occiputal lobe. Nerve fibres from the inner half of the retina of each eye cross at the optic chiasm and travel to the opposite side of the brain
43 of 74
auditory area.
Temporal lobe. Analyis of speech based info. Wernickes area. Damage to the left temporal lobe causes linguistic deficites.
44 of 74
spilit brain research- what is cut?
Corpus callosum
45 of 74
what does this cause?
Two hemispheres cant comunicate
46 of 74
what did it prove?
Two hemispheres can complete tasks independantly.
47 of 74
What is a post mortem study?
research method where the brain of a dead patient, usually someone who has undergone a longitudal study because a rare affliction, is examined upon death.
48 of 74
How does it help us identify localisation and lacterlisation?
We can examine if there is any damage/abnormalities (eg: lisions) in parts of the brain. If there is damage in a part of the brain we can make a link between damage to this area and impared function.
49 of 74
Broca- studied a patient who had a affliction. Found a lesion on the centeral left hemisphere, therefore establsihing damage to this area causes damage to speech. This means this part of the brain contibutes towards speech.
50 of 74
What is this area now called?
Brocas area
51 of 74
Advantages and disadvantages?
Great understanding of rare afflications- hard to obtain a brain, especially because they must of undergone a long study and have a rare alfflication.
52 of 74
EEG, what does it stand for? LOL
53 of 74
How does it work?
electrodes placed in the scalp, voltage diffrences between neurons in the brain. Signal then recorded on a computer screen.
54 of 74
Examples of use?
To monitor epileptic seizures or sleep sessions.
55 of 74
Adantages and Disadavntages?
Natural measurement of brain activity as no intervention needed- electrodes not sensive enough to pick up action poptnetials of single neurons.
56 of 74
xray beam sent through patients head, amount of radiation absorbed measured. Lots of measurements made through diffrent axes of the head. Fed into computer which allows a cross section of the brain to be formed.
57 of 74
used for?
evaluating diffrent amounts of swelling due to tissue damage or looking at size of ventricles.
58 of 74
small amount of radioative glucose injected into blood stream, brain uses glucose, emits radiation when people preform task eg problem solving.
59 of 74
Strong magnetic field s and radio waves cause tissue to give out signsl that is measured. Hundreds of messurements tsken.
60 of 74
strenghs? weaknesses?
detailed knowledge while brain is active, time consuming and cant observe spontanious behaviour. Ethicak issues (injecting with radiative glucose)
61 of 74
What are the two divisons of the PNS?
autonomic and somatic
62 of 74
What does the somatic system do?
Controls skeletal movements & recieve infomation to and from sensory receptors.
63 of 74
What does the autonomic system do?
Maintains homeostasis and is involentary.
64 of 74
What is homeostasis?
The maintenance of a constant internal enviroment.
65 of 74
Two divisions of the autonomic system?
parasympathetic and sympathetic
66 of 74
What type of behaviour are these two systems? 1 WORD.
67 of 74
what does that mean?
They often work opposete to each other.
68 of 74
Example of when they dont
Sexual intercourse, the sympathetic system controls *********** and the parasympathetic controls the erection.
69 of 74
Which one of them provides the quickest action? What is it considered?
The sympathetic system , flight or fight.system
70 of 74
So therefore?
Sympathetic stimulates fight or flight responce while the parasympatheic restores the body back to normal state.
71 of 74
Sympa first, Para 2nd
72 of 74
Eye & Salviary Gland & Lungs
Dilate pupil, constrict pupil, inhibit salvary production,stimulate, dilate bronchi, contrisct bronchi
73 of 74
heart, Gut, Liver, Bladder
speed up, slow down, inhibit digestion, stimulate,, glucose production,bile production, inhibit bladder, stimulate.
74 of 74

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the two main sub-systems in the nervous system?


Central Nervous system and peripheral system

Card 3


What is the CNS?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the PNS?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


2 systems that break down from the PNS? 2 Systems that then break down from that?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Bio resources »