Biopsychology

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*What two things is the nervous system split into?
Central nervous system (CNS) and the Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
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What is the peripheral nervous system made up of?
Somatic nervous system (SNS) and Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
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What is the central nervous system made up of?
Brain and Spinal cord
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What is the brain?
The origin of all commands and decisions
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What does the spinal cord do?
Transfers messages from the brain to the PNS
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The nervous system is know as our body's what?
Primary internal communication system
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What is the nervous system compromised of?
A specialised network of cells
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What are the two main functions of the nervous system?
1. to co-ordinate the working of different organs and cells in the body 2. To collect, process and respond to information in the environment
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Where does the PNS transmit info towards?
The CNS
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The CNS then sends the info to where?
The hormones and glands
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The hormones and glands send the info from the outside world back to what?
The CNS
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What transmits info to and from the receptor cells to and from the CNS?
The SNS
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What nervous system is involuntary and transmits info to and from the internal organs
ANS
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*What are nerve cells that produce and transmit messages through electrical signals?
Neurons
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Name the 3 types of neuron
Sensory, Relay, Motor
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Which neuron has SHORT dendrites and SHORT axons?
Relay
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Which neuron has LONG dendrites and SHORT axons?
Sensory
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Which neuron has SHORT dendrites and LONG axons?
Motor
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What is the function of the sensory neuron?
Carry messages from the PNS to CNS
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What is the function of the relay neuron?
To connect the sensory and motor neurons
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What is the function of the motor neuron?
To carry messages from the CNS to the muscles and glands
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Where is genetic material contained within?
The nucleus found within the cell body
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What carries neural impulses from neighbouring cells towards the cell body?
Dendrites (protude from cell body)
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What carries the impulse away from the cell body?
Axon
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What is the axon covered in and why?
Myelin sheath in order to speed up the transmission of the impulse
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What does the myelin sheath have in order to speed up the transmission of electrical impulse?
Gaps called 'Nodes of Ranvier' which the impulse jumps across
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*What is synaptic transmission the process of?
Neurons communicate with each other by sending chemical messages across the synapse/gap that separates them
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What are neurotransmitters?
Brain chemicals that relay messages across the synapse
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What are neurotransmitters released from?
Synaptic vesicles
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What are the two functions that neurotransmitters perform?
Inhibition or Excitation
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When does Excitation occur?
When a neurotransmitter increases the positive charge of the postsynaptic neuron
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What does this therefore increase?
The likelihood the neuron will fire and pass on the electrical impulse
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What is the opposite and refers to when neurotransmitters increase the negative charge of the postsynaptic membrane?
Inhibition
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What does this therefore decrease?
The likelihood that the neuron will fire and pass on the electrical impulse
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The synapse separates what from each other?
Neurons
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What is sent within the neuron?
Electrical signal
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When the electrical signal reaches the presynaptic nerve terminal (at the end of the neuron) what are released and from where?
Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles
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When the electrical signal diffuses across the synapse, what are taken up by postsynaptic receptor sites in the dendrite of the next neuron?
Neurotransmitters
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What is the final thing that happens to the electrical signal?
It is converted back into an electrical impulse
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*What does the endocrine system instruct glands to do?
Release hormones into the bloodstream
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What are the hormones carried towards?
Target organs in the body
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What is one of the body's major information systems?
The endocrine system
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Glands are organs which do what?
Synthesis hormones
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Hormones are chemical substances which affect what?
Target organs. They circulate in the blood stream
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*What is the response an individual carries out when in danger or stressed called?
The fight or flight response
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What does the body become, in order to fight an aggressor or flee?
Psychologically aroused
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The hypothalamus sends messages to the adrenal medulla which triggers the release of what?
Adrenaline and Nor-adrenaline
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What does adrenaline have a strong affect on?
The cardiovascular system - increasing heat and breathing rate, also increases sweat production and reduces functions of digestive and immune system
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In fight and flight response, what two things work together?
ANS and Endocrine system
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What happens during this process?
The ANS changes from parasympathetic, or resting state, to sympathetic, or aroused state
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

*What two things is the nervous system split into?

Back

Central nervous system (CNS) and the Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Card 3

Front

What is the peripheral nervous system made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the central nervous system made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the brain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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