Psychology (Psychopathology)

Statistical Infrequency
Expressed in terms of the normal distribution curve, in which if you're 2 standard deviations away from the mean you're deemed as statistically abnormal.
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Statistical Infrequency Evaluation
It doesn't take into consideration the desirability of behaviour/ There's no distinction between rare, slightly odd behaviour and rare, psychologically abnormal behaviour/ There's no cut off point where behaviour becomes abnormal/ Some are common
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Deviation From Social Norms
Deviating from cultural expectations that society creates.
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Deviation From Social Norms Evaluation
It's culture bound because societies vary/ Abnormal things can vary over time- for example homosexuality/ it can also be used negatively to justify discrimination
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Failure To Function Adequately
Dysfunctional behaviour/ Observer discomfort/ Unpredictable behaviour/ Irrational behaviour/ Personal distress.
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Failure To Function Adequately Evaluation
Attempts to include the subjective experience of the individual.
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Deviation With Ideal Mental Health
Jahoda identified six conditions associated with ideal mental health, positive self attitude/ self actualisation/ resistance to stress/ personal autonomy/ accurate perception of reality/ adaption to the environment.
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Deviation With Ideal Mental Health Evaluation
Sets a high standard for mental health that is unattainable/ Culture bound/
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DSM-5 Categories Of Phobias
Specific phobia/ Social Anxiety/ Agoraphobia
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Behavioural Characteristics of Phobias
Panic, avoidance, endurance.
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Emotional Characteristics of Phobias
Anxiety- the long term version of panic, that is relatively unreasonable.
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Cognitive Characteristics of Phobias
Selective attention to the phobic stimulus- focusing fully on that, irrational beliefs- of unrealistic consequences of the phobic stimuli, cognitive distortions- perceptions of the stimulus may be distorted.
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Depression
Major depressive disorder- severe but short-term, persistent depressive disorder- long term and sustained, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder- childhood temper tantrums.
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Behavioural Characteristics of Depression
Activity levels, reduced levels of anxiety which can cause a withdrawal from work and school/ Disruption to sleep and eating behaviour, insomnia or hypersomnia, weight loss or weight gain/ Aggression and self harm
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Emotional Characteristics of Depression
Lowered mood, anger directed at oneself or others, lowered self esteem or in some extreme cases, self loathing.
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Cognitive Characteristics of Depression
Poor concentration that can interfere with decision making or day to day activities, bias to negative events and generally pessimistic attitudes, absolutist thinking or in other words, extreme thinking.
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Behavioural Characteristics of OCD
Compulsions- are repetitive, as sufferers feel compelled to perform the behaviour consistently. They reduce anxiety - giving short term relief to the obsessions and acting as a response to them. Avoidance of the obsessions interferes with lives.
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Emotional Characteristics of OCD
Anxiety and distress, accompanying depression, irrational guilty or disgust at oneself or the obsession.
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Cognitive Characteristics of OCD
Obsessive thoughts- unpleasant thoughts that persistently reoccur, cognitive coping strategies- ways of coping that may seem abnormal to others, self awareness- often sufferers are aware their obsessions are irrational but have no power to prevent.
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Acquisition of Phobias by Classical Conditioning
The study of Little Albert proved how phobias can be implemented by conditioning, when a baby was taught fear of rats after having them paired with a loud banging noise. The conditioning also generalised to other similar objects like cotton balls etc
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Maintenance by Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement of behaviour. Whenever we avoid a phobic stimulus we successfully escape the fear and anxiety we would have suffered if we stayed, reinforcing the avoidance behaviour and thus maintaining the phobia.
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Behavioural Approach Evaluation
Real life application in therapies/ Avoidance behaviour may not be driven by anxiety reduction/ Evolutionary challenges-phobias often are evolutionary dangers/ Cognitive factors ignored/ Phobias can exist that didn't follow a trauma?
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Treating Phobias
Systematic desensitisation gradually reduces phobias- 1) anxiety hierarchy, 2) relaxation, 3) exposure. Flooding- immediately exposing the the patient to the phobic stimulus. It is essential to get informed consent.
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Treating Phobias Evaluation
Systematic Desensitisation- suitable for all patients, has research support, preferred by patients/ Flooding- cost effective but can be traumatic and not always suitable for some phobias.
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Beck's Cognitive Theory of Depression
Faulty information processing gives a negative outlook on positive situations, negative self schemas enable pessimistic thoughts about ourselves, negative triad includes negative thoughts about ourselves, the world, and the future.
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Beck Evaluation
Practical application in CBT, and supported by evidence- 65 pregnant women tested for cognitive vulnerability and it was found that those more vulnerable were more likely to suffer post-natal depression. Yet doesn't cover all aspects (ie, anger)
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Ellis' ABC Model
Irrational thoughts are anything that interferes with our happiness. Activating event triggers irrational Beliefs that have emotional Consequences.
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Ellis' ABC Model Evaluation
It has practical application for CBT, it has the same limitation that it doesn't explain anger etc, and it also neglects explanation of depression not caused by actual events.
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Beck's CBT
Directly challenges the components of the negative triad where patients are encouraged to question their rationality, helped by "homework" of recording happy events as a challenge to the beliefs.
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Ellis' CBT
Extending the model to ABCDE- Dispute and Effect. Vigorous argument of the irrational belief includes questioning its logic and disputing whether there's evidence to support it. Behavioural activism also
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Cognitive Treatment to Depression Evaluation
Supporting evidence demonstrates how CBT is just as effective as drug treatment, but it's not effective for severe cases and focuses too much on the present and cognition rather than circumstance. Success may also be due to therapist-patient relation
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Biological Explanations of OCD
37% of Lewis' patients had parents with OCD and 21% had siblings with it. It's thus thought there's a genetic vulnerability to it runs in families.
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Candidate Genes
Genes involved in regulating the serotonin system are thought to have some involvement in the development of OCD, such as 5HT1-D Beta
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Polygenic
OCD is caused by many, not one gene. Some studies have suggested up to 230.
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Aetiologically Heterogenous
One group of genes may cause OCD in one person but a different group may cause it in another.
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Genetic Explanations to OCD Evaluation
68% of identical twins shared OCD in one study as opposed to 31% non identical, providing supporting evidence, there's too many candidate genes for it to have practical predictive value, trauma can cause OCD- contradicting environmental factors.
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Serotonin's Contribution
Low levels of serotonin means the normal transmission of mood-relevant information doesn't occur so this function affects the processes to lead to OCD.
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Frontal Lobes Contribution
Perhaps an abnormal functioning of the lateral parts of the frontal lobe lead to impaired decision making that accompanies and drives OCD.
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Neural Explanations to OCD Evaluation
Drugs that just work on serotonin treat the condition showing how it is an important factor, no causation established, not entirely sure what neural mechanisms are directly involved.
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SSRIs
Serotonin drugs that increase serotonin levels by preventing the re-absorption or serotonin and thus stimulate the postsynaptic neurons to continue transmitting the neurotransmitter.
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SSRIs and CBT
Work effectively together because the drugs reduce the emotional distress of the patient, allowing for them to engage better with the therapy.
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Alternatives to SSRIs
Tricyclics- an older type of antidepressant that is kept in reserve for the patients who don't respond well to SSRIs because it has some severe side effects. SNRIs- do the same job as SSRIs but also increase the level of noradrenaline.
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OCD Drug Treatment Evaluation
Supporting evidence in that SSRIs are significantly better than placebos, general advantage that they're cheap, side effects are a limitation, file draw effect.
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Card 2

Front

It doesn't take into consideration the desirability of behaviour/ There's no distinction between rare, slightly odd behaviour and rare, psychologically abnormal behaviour/ There's no cut off point where behaviour becomes abnormal/ Some are common

Back

Statistical Infrequency Evaluation

Card 3

Front

Deviating from cultural expectations that society creates.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

It's culture bound because societies vary/ Abnormal things can vary over time- for example homosexuality/ it can also be used negatively to justify discrimination

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Dysfunctional behaviour/ Observer discomfort/ Unpredictable behaviour/ Irrational behaviour/ Personal distress.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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