Psychology early attachments a level aqa new syllabus

  • Created by: _marxlee
  • Created on: 18-04-17 14:52
What is meant by reciprocity?
A two way interaction. Where the infant and the caregiver are both active contributors and are responding to each other
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What does Brazelton et al show?
That the baby is very active and the mother child interactions are like a dance
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True or false? In reciprocity, mother and child take turn to initiate interactions
true
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What did Feldman and Eidelman find?
Babies have alert periods that mothers pick up on and respond to, although only about two thirds of the time
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What is interactional synchrony?
Where the infant and caregivers behaviours are synchronised because they are moving in the same or in a similar pattern
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The interaction can be seen as ??? and can include infant and caregiver mirroring each other's behaviour and emotion
Rhythmic
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What did Condon and Sander investigate?
Interactions between infants and caregivers in particular in relation to responses to adult speech
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In Condon and Sander's paper what did they report?
As early as the first day of life, the human neonate moves in precise and sustained segments of movement that are synchronised with the articulated structure of adult speech
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What did research by Meltzoff and Moore suggest?
Infants as young as 3 days imitate the facial expression of adults. This implies that this ability to mirror is an innate behaviour
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What was the 4 different stimuli Meltzoff and Moore used?
Adults displayed one of three facial expressions and a hand gesture
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How was the child's response recorded?
It was filmed and identified by independent observers who had no knowledge of what the child had just seen
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What were the behavioural categories?
Mouth opening, termination of mouth opening, tongue protrusion, termination of tongue protrusion
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How many times did the observes score the tapes?
Twice
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Why did they repeat this process?
So the inter-observer reliability could be calculated
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All scores were greater than ???
9.2
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What was the association found?
Between the expression or gesture the adult has displayed and the babies actions
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What did Isabella et al study?
30 mothers and infants together and looked at synchrony and quality of attachment
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What did Isabella et al find?
An association between high levels of synchrony and better quality attachments
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How does Isabella et al support Meltzoff?
Shows the existence of reciprocity consistently between mother and child
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What did Isabella find in relation to the degree of reciprocity and interactional synchrony shown?
Found differences. Infants displaying more synchrony were more strongly attached which shows us not just about the concepts existence but also about the purpose and importance of reciprocity and interactional synchrony
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What is the strength of both Isabella's and Meltzoffs research?
Observations of mother infant interactions are generally well controlled with both mother and child being filmed, often from multiple angles-therefore improves the validity of the research and use of independent observers improves the reliability
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What is good about the child not knowing that they are being observed?
Their behaviour doesn't change in a controlled observation which is generally a problem for observational research
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What is a criticism of interactional synchrony?
It's not universal- it's not found in all cultures which weakens the support for the idea that it is important in the development of attachments
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What did Le Vine report?
That Kenyan mothers have little physical contact or interactions with their children but have high proportions of secure attachments
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What is a practical application of Meltzoff and Moore?
Suggests that babies should be placed next to their mothers in hospital and should continue to remain in close contact for at least the first 3 months to improve the quality of attachment
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what do music therapists and other therapist who work with parents and children recognise?
The importance of reciprocity and interactional synchrony in their therapeutic work.
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What is an example of this?
Caregivers are encouraged to mirror and share their child's emotion by imitating facial expressions and engaging in reciprocal behaviour in response to music or other stimuli
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What is the first stage of attachment?
Pre-attachment
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When does this occur and what happens at this stage?
Birth to 3 months, start to smile, becomes more sociable, from around 6 weeks they can tell people apart+like human company, no fear of strangers, form stronger attachments
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What is the second stage of attachment?
Indiscriminate attachment
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When does this occur and what happens at this stage?
3 months to 7/8 months, recognising and forming bonds with their careers through reciprocity and interactional synchrony, behaviour towards animate and inanimate objects are the same, end of phase is more content in the presence of other people
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What is the third stage of attachment?
Discriminate attachment
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When does this occur and what happens at this stage?
7/8 months to 9 months, begins to show separation anxiety and priests squally by crying when primary caregiver leaves, said to have formed a specific attachment, begin to show fear of strangers
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What percentage is the primary caregiver likely to be the mother?
75%
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What was the aim of Schaffer and Emerson's research?
To investigate the formation of early attachments, when they started, their intensity and to whom they were directed
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What is the final stage of attachment?
Multiple attachment
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When does this occur and what happens at this stage?
9 months+, shortly after specific attachment they begin to make multiple attachments, usually towards friends, grandparents and child minders
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How many babies were studied in their study?
60
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Where were the babies from and what was their class?
Glasgow, working class
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How often were the babies visited?
Visted at home every month for the first year and then start 18 months
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Why were the mothers interviewed?
To measure the infants level of attachment asking questions about how their infants responded to 7 situations
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What percentage of infants by 7 months displayed specific attachment?
50%
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What percentage of infants showed specific attachments by 40 weeks?
80%
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What percentage of infants showed multiple attachments by 40 weeks?
30%
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By 1 year what percentage of infants had developed multiple attachments?
78%
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How many percentage had 5 or more multiple attachment figures?
33%
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What is beneficial about longitudinal studies?
Looks at the same group of infants over a much longer period of time than a lab experiment or observation
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What is the validity of Schaffer Emersons study?
Observed babies in their actual home environment so behaviour was unlikely to have been affected by observers- has external validity
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Card 2

Front

What does Brazelton et al show?

Back

That the baby is very active and the mother child interactions are like a dance

Card 3

Front

True or false? In reciprocity, mother and child take turn to initiate interactions

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Feldman and Eidelman find?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is interactional synchrony?

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