PSYB4 Research Methods Terms

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Theory
Set of assumptions used to explain phenomena & offered for scientific study
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Hypothesis
testable prediction, often implied by a theory
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Operational Definition
statement of procedures used to define research variables which helps to enable replication
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Replication
repeating of research study to determine if its finding extends to other participants and circumstances
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Case Study
descriptive research technique in which one person or a small group is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles
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Survey/Questionnaire
research method in which info is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
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Population
all cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
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Random Sample
sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
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Naturalistic Observation
descriptive research that involves observing and recording behavior without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
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Correlation
The relationship between two sets of variables which is shown on a graph to demonstrate a positive, negative or zero correlation.
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Scattergraph
Graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables.
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Experiment
research method in which investigator manipulates one or more factors (IV) to observe effect on some behavior or mental process (DV)
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Double-blind experiment
Where both the participants and the researcher don't know the aim of the experiment or what happens.
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Control condition
condition of experiment that contrasts with experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
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Independant Variable
Experimental factor that is being manipulated, variable whose effect is being studied.
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Dependant Variable
What is measured (variable that may change in response to manipulations of the IV).
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Mean
The average from a set of scores.
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Median
Middle score in distribution.
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Mode
Most frequently occuring score.
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Range
The lowest score minus the highest score (the difference between).
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Standard Deviation
The spread of scores across a data set.
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Signifigance level
A score that shows the likeliness that a score has occured down to chance.
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Null Hypothesis
Predicts there will be an effect but doesn't specify which way the scores will go.
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Experimental/Alternative Hypothesis
Predicts the effect and the specific way the scores will go.
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Extraneous variables
Any variables other than the IV that could affect the DV.
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Confounding of variables
When two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects.
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Quasi Experiment
Researchers takes subjects & conditions as they naturally occur, with little if any control over what happens.
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Reliability
Extent to which a test yields consistent results - if it can be replicated.
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Validity
Extent to how accurate the results collected are, and if it tests what its supposed to.
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Test-Retest Reliability
Where you test the same thing twice and results should be the same or very similar to what they were previously.
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Split Half Reliability
A test is divided into 2 halves and scores on the halves are compared to see if test is consistent within itself. Ex. compare odds & evens
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Content Validity
degree to which test is representative of total domain its supposed to cover.
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Face Validity
Measures whether a test looks like it tests what it is supposed to
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Nominal level data
The collection of frequencies.
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Ordinal level data
Data collected on a scale.
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Interval level data
Fixed level data with specific measurements.
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Hawthorne Effect
Behaviour of participants change because they are aware they are being observed.
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Stratified sample
Sample drawn in such a way that known subgroups within a population are represented in proportion to their numbers in general population
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Experimenter Bias
Expectations of the experiment from the researcher which affects the experiment.
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Correlation co-efficient
Statistical measure of strength of association between two variables ranging from -1.0 to 1.0.
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Type one error
Rejecting null hypothesis when infact it is true.
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Type two error
Failing to reject the null hypothesis even though it is false.
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Deception
Method by which participants are mislead about the studys method or purposes.
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0.05
Results are signifigant, we can be 95% sure that results aren't due to chance.
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Normal Distribution curve
Bell shaped curve showing the distribution of the standard deviation.
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Case study
In-depth study of one person.
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Observation
Where an observer observes a persons behaviour in a familar enviroment.
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External Reliability
the extent that a measuring instrument is consistent across different times and situations.
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Internal Reliablilty
Refers to the extent to which all the instrument's items are measuring the same attribute.
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Systematic Sampling
Every nth person in the population is selected.
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Opportunity Sampling
Collecting participants who are available to take part in the study.
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Quantiative data
Numerical data
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Qualitative data
Written data
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Inferential Statistics
Numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance.
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Related Design
Participants in one condition are related to participants in the other condition. ie matched pairs and repeated measures.
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Unrelated Design
Participants in one condition are not related to participants in the other condition. ie independant groups
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Back

Hypothesis

Card 3

Front

statement of procedures used to define research variables which helps to enable replication

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

repeating of research study to determine if its finding extends to other participants and circumstances

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

descriptive research technique in which one person or a small group is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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