PSYA4: Depression

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  • Created by: Michael
  • Created on: 14-06-15 17:14
How long must symptoms of depression be present for?
2 weeks
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What is hypersomnia?
Sleeping excessively
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What was the procedure of Keller et al?
524 depressed individuals, 5 different sites, interviewed 6 months apart using DSM.
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Who found test-retest reliability was poor-to-fair?
Keller et al
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What did Beck et al find?
A correlation of .93 between two therapy sessions, 1 week apart, when the BDI was used.
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Depression frequently occurs alongside other disorders (Co-morbidity). Which disorder does depression NOT frequently occur alongside?
Placental infarction
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What did Coryell et al find?
10% of people with MDD go on to develop bipolar disorders.
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Did Hammen support or oppose the distinction between endogenous and non-endogenous depressions?
Oppose
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Who found 20% of probands relatives have depression compared to 10% of the whole population?
Harrington et al
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Who found 46% concordance rates in MZ twins vs. 20% in DZ twins (unipolar disorder)?
McGuffin et al
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Who found the biological parents of an adopted individual with depression were 8 times more likely to develop depression than the adopted parents?
Wender et al
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Describe the procedure and findings of Glowinski et al
3416 female adolescent twins (interviewed using DSM-IV): 40% risk of MDD due to genetics.
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Who found that female twins genetically predisposed to depression were more likely to develop depression when faced with a negative life event?
Kendler et al
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Who found depressed individuals receiving anti-depressant medication experienced a return of their symptoms following a diet with lower levels of tryptophan (AO1)?
Delgado et al
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What have post-mortem studies of suicide victims found?
Increased densities of noradrenaline receptors due to decreased noradrenaline.
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Kraft et al found significantly more positive response with real drugs than placebos. What drugs, and for how long?
SNRIs for 6 weeks
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One study echoed the findings of Delgado et al (tryptophan deficient amino acid mixture resulted in a relapse of symptoms). Who?
Ruhe et al
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At what stage do individuals with depression become fixated (according to the psychodynamic approach)
Oral
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Why is anger (a result of loss) directed inwards?
Superego deems it unacceptable
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Who found children whose mothers died in childhood were more likely to experience depression?
Bifulco
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What did Comer find?
Psychotherapy is not very effective.
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What composes the cognitive triad?
Self, environment, future
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What is sociotropy?
Individual is worthless if not liked by all.
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What are All or Nothing, minimisation and selective abstraction examples of?
Negative Automatic Thoughts (NATs)
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Apart from Beck's Cognitive Theory, what is a cognitive explanation of depression?
Reformulated Learned Helplessness (Abramson)
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When an individual fails the attribute their failure to an underlying reason. What is a maladaptive attributional style that causes depression?
Internal, Stable, Global
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Who found CBT is effective in reducing symptoms and preventing relapse?
Kuyken et al
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Who found that those with a negative attributional style showed more symptoms associated with depression when stressed?
Kwon et al
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When did Lewisohn begin to study participants?
Before they became depressed
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What did Lewisohn find?
Those who developed depression were no more likely to have NATs.
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What is phase 1 of drug therapy?
Acute
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Whose research supported the role of antidepressants over placebos?
Thase and Kupfer
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What does the preparation phase consist of?
No food (6 hours), barbiturates, oxygen
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An electrical current of ... is passed through the brain
65v to 140v
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An electrical current of 65v to 140v is passed through the brain for ...
Half a second
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What did Mulsant et al find?
Significant improvement in 83% of cases (elderly patients)
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Describe the procedure and findings of Scott.
reviewed 18 studies (1144 patients) - ECT is more effective than drugs in the short term.
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There are issues surrounding appropriateness. What are these issues and who identified them?
Memory loss (Rose et al) and suicide attempts (Ferguson et al)
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What did Sackeim et al find?
Unilateral ECT is less likely to cause cognitive problems
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How many CBT sessions does an individual usually attend?
20 over 16 weeks
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Who found that CBT is as effective as medication in reducing symptoms?
Fava et al
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Keller et al studied recovery rates. What were the recovery rates for drugs alone, CBT alone and the two together?
55%, 52%, 85%
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Who suggested that CBT is not effective for people with rigid attitudes
Simons et al
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What is the interpersonal Inventory?
An outline of current relationships and problems
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What is Encouragement of Affect
Identifying, expressing and managing emotions
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What did Elkin et al find?
IPT was as effective as cognitive therapy and drug therapy in reducing symptoms
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What did Horvath and Bedi find?
Success of IPT depends on quality of relationship between therapist and client.
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What did Lesperance find?
No improvement when IPT was used with citalopram
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Describe the procedure and findings of Hunt and Andrews
5 MAs, the median drop out rate was 8%
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Card 2

Front

What is hypersomnia?

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Sleeping excessively

Card 3

Front

What was the procedure of Keller et al?

Back

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Card 4

Front

Who found test-retest reliability was poor-to-fair?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Beck et al find?

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