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DEPRESSION
CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DEPRESSION
Cognitive- Loss of self-esteem, negative/ suicidal thoughts, lack of ability to concentrate
Behavioural- Loss of appetite, disordered sleep patterns, poor self-care
Physical- Loss of weight, loss of energy, menstrual change
Emotional- Sadness, lack of pleasure, LOW MOOD

The patient must have experienced at least five…

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Family Studies- Child more likely to possess when parent has MDD or Bi Polar
--> Gershon- Rates of depression were 2-3 times the rate of the rest of the population in parents
of sufferers.
o Amish family- 11/81 suffered from Bi Polar, markers found on those individuals
genes that were…

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High and low levels of Cortisol- Cushing's (HIGH) and Addison's (LOW) both show
increased depression levels.
Bao- Females are more likely to experience depression- Oestrogen stimulates CRH whereas
Androgens in males suppress it.
Exposure to stress hormones in the womb can cause loss of synapses in the pre-frontal
cortex does…

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Abramson- Attributions have three dimensions:

o Internal-External Is the person to blame (internal) or other forces (external)
o Stable-Unstable If a failure is a one-off (unstable) or seen as being inevitably repeated
(stable)
o Global-Specific If a failure is seen as a representation of the individuals personality and
life (global…

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o More likely to find themselves in situations that provide limited control.




BIOLOGICAL THERAPIES FOR THEIR CHOSEN DISORDER, INCLUDING THEIR
EVALUATION IN TERMS OF APPROPRIATENESS AND EFFECTIVENESS


DRUG THERAPY TRICYCLI
C S

Amount of Serotonin and Noradrenaline available in the brain is increased as Tricyclics prevent
their re-uptake.
Enhance the…

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ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT)

Small electrical current passed through brain to induce an epileptic-like seizure. Patient is
given a muscle relaxant beforehand and anaesthetised.
Applied to left hand side of brain- prevents loss of language memory- however, not as effective.
Last form of action, after drug therapy.
Better response than to…

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It treats the underlying cause and not just the symptoms- less likely to relapse as they have the
tools they need to change their mindset.

EFFECTI
VENESS

Is at least as effective as other treatments.
Low relapse rate
Can be combined with other therapies and treatments such as drug therapy.…

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