Population and the environment

  • Created by: abbyy16
  • Created on: 28-04-19 13:35
Population density
The average number of people living in a specified area, usually expressed as the number of people per square kilometer
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Population distibution
The pattern of where people live. This can be considered at all scales from local to global, in all area or country.
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Population parameters
A quantity or measure that for a given population is fixed and can be used in the description of that population.
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Agricultural productivity
The ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs.
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Positive Checks
Increased deaths through war, famine and disease; increased incidence of abortion.
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Negative checks
Malthus advocated moral restraint, for example later marriages
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Climate
A regions long term weather patterns. Measured through the level of precipitation, time of sunshine and maximum/minimum temperatures.
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Food security
Existis when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life.
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Salinisation
The build-up of salts in soil, eventually to toxic levels for plants.
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Soil
The upper layer of the earth in which plants grow, a black or dark brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay and rock particles.
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Topography
The relief and drainage of an area.
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Zonal soil
A soil which has a experienced the maximum effect of climate and natural vegetation upon the parent rock, assuming there are no extremes of weathering, relief or drainage.
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Green Revolution
A large increase in crop production in developing countries achieved by the use of artificial fertilizers, pesticides, and high-yield crop varieties.
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UNFAO
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation.
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Subsistence farming
The practice of growing crops and raising livestock sufficient only for one's own use, without any surplus for trade.
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Intensive farming
Involves various types of agraiculture with higher levels of inputs and outputs. Fertilizers and chemicals are used to increase yield.
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Monsoon
A seasonal prevailing wind in the region of South and SE Asia, blowing from the south-west between May and September and bringing rain (the wet monsoon ), or from the north-east between October and April (the dry monsoon ).
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Latosol
Soils found under tropical rainforests with a relatively high content of iron and aluminium oxides.
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Podsol
An infertile acidic soil characterized by a white or grey subsurface layer resembling ash, from which minerals have been leached into a lower dark-coloured stratum. It typically occurs under temperate coniferous woodland.
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Soil erosion
Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil degradation. This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice, snow, air, plants, animals, and humans.
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Topsoil
Surface soil usually including the organic layer in which plants have most of their roots and which the farmer turns over in plowing.
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Food stability
The availability of food and one's access to it. A household is considered food secure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation.
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WFP
World food programme is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
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DALYs
Disabled-adjusted life years, is a measure of morbidity within society. They measure the number of healthy life lost by being in poor health or state of a disability
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Epidemiological model
Describes changing patterns of population age, distribution, mortality, fertility, life expectancy, and causes of death. It assumes that infectious diseases are replaced with chronic diseases over time due to expanded public health and sanitation.
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Health
WHO defined as, a satet of complete physical, metal and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
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Morbidity
Relates to illness and disease, it can also be used to describe the incidence of a disease within society. Some diseases are so infectious that by law they must be reported, these include malaria and rubella.
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Mortality
Relates to death, it can be measured by death rate, infant mortality, case mortality and attack rate.
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Non-communicable disease
A medical condition of disease that is by definition non-infectious and non-transmissible among people, for example Coronary heart disease and Asthma
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Well-being
The state of being comfortable,healthy or happy.
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Demographic Transition Model
Is based on historical population trends of two demographic characteristics – birth rate and death rate – to suggest that a country's total population growth rate cycles through stages as that country develops economically.
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Vector-borne disease
An infection transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod species, such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomine bugs, sandflies, and blackflies.
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SAD
Seasonal affective disorder is a type of depression that occurs in the winter in countries that are far from the equator.
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CHD
Coronary heart disease is a disease in which plaque builds up on the inner walls of your coronary arteries. These arteries carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart. When plaque builds up in the arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis.
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NGOs (Top down approach)
Non-governmental organisation. A non-profit organisation that operates independently of any government, typically one whose purpose is to address a social or political issue.
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Natural change
The difference between birth and death rates. If birth rates are higher there is a natural increase in population; if death rates are higher than there is natural decrease.
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Death rate
Death Rate is the term used to define the number of deaths every year per 1000 people in a population.
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Birth rate
Birth Rate is the term used to define the number of babies born every year per 1000 people in a population.
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Immigration
Is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there.
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Emigration
Is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
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IMR
Infant mortality rate is the number of children who die before their first birthday per 1000.
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Life expectancy
The average number of years a person born into a particular year in a location is expected to live.
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Net migration rate
is the difference between the number of immigrants (people coming into an area) and the number of emigrants (people leaving an area) throughout the year.
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Replacement rate
The amount of fertility needed to keep the population the same from generation to generation. It refers to the total fertility rate that will result in a stable population without it increasing or decreasing.
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Reproductive age
The age at which women can give birth, in offical demographic data it is usually between the ages of 15-44.
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Total fertility rate
This is the average number of children born per women in an area or country if all women lived to the end of their child-bearing years.
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Population pyramid
A graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing.
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Dependency ratio
Is an age-population ratio of those typically not in the labor force (the dependent part ages 0 to 14 and 65+) and those typically in the labor force (the productive part ages 15 to 64).
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Demographic dividend
The benefit a country gets when its working population outgrows its dependents such as children and the elderly. A boost in economic productivity results from growing numbers in the workforce relative to the number of dependents.
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Refugee
A person fleeing civil war or natural disaster but not necessarily fearing persecution. A refugee is an asylum seeker who's application has been successful.
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Asylum seeker
A person who has fled from his or her own country due to fear of persecution and has applied for (legal and physical) protection in another country but has not yet had their claim for protection assessed.
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Economic migrant
Someone who emigrates from one region to another, seeking an improved standard of living, because the conditions or job opportunities in the migrant's own region are insufficient.
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Pull/ push factors
Factors that make people want to go or leave somewhere.
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Biotic potential
The maximum capacity of an individual or population to reproduce under optimal environmental conditions. Populations rarely reproduce at their biotic potential because of limiting factors such as disease, and restricted food resources.
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Environmental resistance
The sum of the environmental factors (such as drought, mineral deficiencies, and competition) that tend to restrict the biotic potential of an organism or kind of organism and impose a limit on numerical increase.
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Carrying capacity
The maximum population size that an area or environment can sustain.
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Ecological footprint
A meausre of the demand placed by humans on Earths natural ecosystem; the total area of productive land and water required to produce the resources a population consumes.
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Under population
population that is less than the available resources of a country. It then means that the size of the population is so small that there will be too many resources per person.
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Over population
A population so dense as to cause environmental deterioration, an impaired quality of life, or a population crash. There isn't enough resources for each person.
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Population projections
A picture of what the future population may look like, based on knowledge of the past and taking, for the future, hypotheses based on fertility, mortality and migrations.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Population distibution

Back

The pattern of where people live. This can be considered at all scales from local to global, in all area or country.

Card 3

Front

Population parameters

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Agricultural productivity

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Positive Checks

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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