plate tectonic key terms

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  • Created by: aldoman
  • Created on: 16-12-13 10:29
subduction
occurs when two tectonic plates collide and the denser plate drifts below the less dense plate
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convection currents
zones of hotter molten magma displaying circulatory motion in the asthenosphereto cause plate movement
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8 major plates
Eurasian,north american,south american,indo-austrailan,african,nazca,pacific ,antarctic
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destructive margins
when two plates collide reulting on subduction of the denswer plate beneath the less dense plate
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constructive margins
when two plates move in opposing direction to reveal a fault in the earths surface and possible ridt valley formation
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rift valley
the fracturing and rifting of the land as two land masses move apart.As the sides move the central region may fall down to form the rift.
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conservative margins
when two plates are moving parallel to each other,the resulting friction and energy build up may result in seimic activity
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extrusive features
igneous rock created by the crystalisation of magma above the earths surface
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intrusive features
igneous rock created by the crystalisation of magma beneath the earths surface
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basaltic lava
least viscous lava
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andesitic lava
silca lava commonly found at composite volcanoes
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rhyoltic lava
most viscous acidic lava forming steep sided volacnoes
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dyke
vertical intrusion with horizontal cooling cracks
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sill
horizontal intrusion with vertical cooling cracks
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batholith
a large intrusive feature formed of magma cooled below the earths surface
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bedding planes
sedimentary rocks which form the crust
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fissure volacno
occur along elongated cracks that allow lava to spill over a large area with a getle persistent eruption
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shield volcano
form getly sloping cone volcanoes of low viscousity lava and predictable eruptions
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composite volcano
most common land volanco formed of ash and lava layers displaying deructiive eruptuions with andesitic lava
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acid/dome volacno
steep sided volacno with destrucive natures that flow the most viscous rhyolitic lava
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caldera
exteremly destructive volcano characterised by a collapsed crater and andesitic lava.
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boiling mud
when hot water mixes with mud and surface deposists
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solfatara
created when gases mainly sulpherous escape onto the surface
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geyser
water in the lower crust is heated by rocks and turns to steam before exploding out onto the surface due to pressure increases
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fumeroles
super heated water turns to steam as its pressure drops when it emerges from the ground
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active volcano
erupted in living memory
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dormant volcano
erupted within historical records
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extinct volacno
will not eruput again
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earthquake
violent ground shaking for a period of time
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focus
the point below the earths surface where the earthquake originates
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epicentre
the point directly above the focus on to land surface.
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shallow focus
0-70km
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intermediate focus
70-300km
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deep focus
300-700km
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p waves
primary waves that travel fastest and can travel through soilds and liquids
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s-waves
secondary waves that are mosre deustrucive than p waves but are slower,cannot pass through liquids and move in sideways motions
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Surface waves
slowest waves that travel near the earths surface and are most destrucive.the waves move both sideways ,backwars and fowards.
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magnitude
represents the amount of energy released from an erathquake
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frequency
represents how often an eartyhquake may occur
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richter scale
a measurement of earthquake magnitude.with 10x strength increase every unit.
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Tsunami
enourmous wave generated by a disturbance in the sea floor
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liquefaction
when ground is shaken so violently that it takes a liquid state
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land slide
slope failure due to ground shaking
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

zones of hotter molten magma displaying circulatory motion in the asthenosphereto cause plate movement

Back

convection currents

Card 3

Front

Eurasian,north american,south american,indo-austrailan,african,nazca,pacific ,antarctic

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

when two plates collide reulting on subduction of the denswer plate beneath the less dense plate

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

when two plates move in opposing direction to reveal a fault in the earths surface and possible ridt valley formation

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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