Plate Tectonics & Associated Hazards

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  • Plate Tectonics & Associated Hazards
    • Wegner
      • 1912
      • Proposed theory that there was only one continent
        • 300 million years ago
        • Pangea - which was a super continent
          • Later Pangea split into two continents
            • South Continent - Gondwanaland
            • North Continent -Laurasia
    • Key Terms
      • Hot Spot
        • Point on the Earth's surface located above a plume of rising magma
          • Hawaiian Islands
      • Plate
        • The lithosphere is divided into a number of segments which float on an underlying semi-molten mantle and moved by convection currents
      • Plate Tectonics
        • Theory that attempts to explain the formation and distribution of the Earth's major structural features
          • In terms of a series of plates which make up the Earth's surface
      • Seismic Waves
        • Shock waves released by the rupture of rock strata at the focus of an earthquake
          • They travel through the rocks and are measured and recorded on a seismic graph
      • Tsunami
        • Very large sea waves caused by a very shallow focus underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, debris slides and land slides under water
      • Volcano
        • An opening or vent through which magma, molten rock, ash or volatiles erupt onto the Earth's surface
    • The Earth's layers
      • The Core
        • Made up of dense rocks containing iron and nickel alloys.
          • Divided into solid inner core and molten outer core
            • With a temperature of over 5,000 degrees Celcius
      • The Mantle
        • Made up of molten and semi-molten rocks containing lighter elements
          • e.g. Silicon and Oxygen
      • The Crust
        • Made up of even lighter elements
          • e.g. silicon, oxygen, aluminium, potassium and sodium
            • Varies in thickness
              • Below the continents
                • 30-40km thick
              • Below the ocean
                • 6-10 km thick
              • Below the highest mountain ranges
                • Up to 70km thick
      • The upper mantle is divided into two layers
        • The lithosphere
          • Consists of the crust and rigid upper section of the mantle
            • Is approx. 80-90km thick
              • Its divided into 7 large plates and a number of smaller ones
                • Plates are divided into two categories
                  • Continental
                  • Untitled
        • The asthenosphere
          • Untitled


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