Pilgrimage of Grace

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What were the 3 risings that happened in the Pilgrimage of grace?
linconshire uprising, POG, Sir Francis Bigod & the cumberland rising
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What were the dates of the risings?
linconshire= oct 1536 (1-11) , POG= Oct-dec (8-8), Bigod= jan- feb (16-10)
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How important was this rebellion?
most serious threat to henry vIIIs regin and biggest insurrection of the common people since 1531 peasents revolt
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What did Aske the leader of the pilgrimage claim the 'greatest cause' of the rising was?
the dissolution of the moanstries
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Why were the monatries popular institutions?
provided shelter, education, shelter for travellers, helped the poor with food and clothing, employed many and provided safe houses for goods and tenacies for farmers
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However what shows that this was not the greastest cause?
the pilgrims only attempt to restore 16/55 religous houses in the north
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What did P.ramsey suggest?
it was not the fear of the monastries closing but rather the replacement of the crown as landlord
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What futher evidence is there that the pilgrims had a desire to defend the faith?
the movement adopted religous imagery, oaths, songs and propaganda
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How did defending the faith help the rebellion?
gave the rebellion justfication and motivation that helped to sustain it
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What were the rebels 4 main demands?
1. end to drianing of churches wealth 2. renunciation og henry VIII's royal supremacy 3. rehabillitation of mary 4. Hersey to be rooted out
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Who were inspired by the religous demands?
clergy and monks
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How did the commoners feel?
concerned about the plunder of local church treasure
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What had caused hardship to many?
in 1535 &1536 there were two years of bad harvests and poor weather
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What other agricultral issues stirred the rebels?
entry fines (renewal of tenacies), Boarder tenures (land in return for miltary servce), rent racking and enclosure
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What was a consistent theme of the rebels? and which policy particulary?
oppisition to taxation- Cromwells initaive of taxing in peacetime such as with the 1534 subsidy act
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What was the staue of uses (also proviked oppisition)?
a fedual tax on aristocratic landed inheritances
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How did the gentry and the lesser nobilty of the North feel?
like they had not been sufficently about the huge political and constiuntional changes of the previous two years
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What were the old established familes of the north againsit?
Tudor centralisation (article 15)
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What do these 2 pieaces of evidence suggest?
that most of the grievances of the rebels were concerns of the gentry
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How did the north see itself and who did they blame?
as being under attack from the greedy crown regime, and blamed cromwell
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What did they belive Cromwell initiated?
Treason act, Royal Supermacy and Hersey
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Using Cromwell as a scapegoat was also very useful for who else?
gentry and nobility engaging in court politics
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What do these feeling from the North show?
that there was a north vs south divide (cause)
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What is another political cause?
Court factions
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What does Professir Elton argue?
that the rebillon was caused as part of a power struggle at court, as part of an aristocratic feud
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What did the defeated Aragonese court faction want?
to create a power base in North of country
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What purpose would this have had?
help to achive political victory at court
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Who were the Aragonese court faction?
supporters of Catherine of Aragon and Mary- had been sidlined at court after the annulment ofCatherine and Henrys Marriage
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How had they gained some power back?
they had opposed the marriage to Anne Boleyn but by 1536 Anne was dead
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What were their main aims?
1. wanted Mary reinsated 9(article 3) 2. defending catholism 3. ending royal supremacy (article 2)
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Who was their cheif ememy percevied to be?
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Who were the key leaders?
Lord Darcy and Lord Hussey
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Who did Aske have links to?
the religous conservatives factions at court
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What was the Final cause of the rebellion?
Many leading families incuding the percies had genuine complaints- resnetment of the postion of Anne B and Cromwell
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How involed were the Percies in the rebellion?
Northumberland (head of family) was not involed having made Henry his sole heir- his Bro Thomas Percy expressed fears of Royal expansionof power into the North east
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What would have other noble families who might have got involed done?
either supported the king or did nothing
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What did the Duke of Norfolk do?
sympathsied as an oppenat of Cromwell, but the rebellion would have been an oppertunity for him to spread his power and landholding Northwards
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Why is there speculation of a conspiracy?
the fustrations of the gentry and nobility involed led them to manipulate popular discontent for their own ends- cant explain its outbreak/spread
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When did news of the Linconshire uprising reach the ears of Yorkish lawyer and gentlemen Robert Aske?
4 th October 1536
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What did Aske then do?
send letters across the county calling men to maintain the holy church
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What happened after he returned from visiting the Linconshire rebels at Caistor?
he orgainised musters in the east Riding of yorkshire
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What was the army like?
it consisted of 9 separtae armies, with separate origins, but most joined the rebel army
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What had Robert Askes become by the 10th October?
Cheif Captin
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When was York taken and what was set up there?
16th oct by 10,000 rebels and a head quaters was sent uo there
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What was also happening at the time?
other risings were also happening in the north around the 11th of oct led by nobles or gentry
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By the 21st of Oct ho big was the force moving towards pontefract?
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What did Lord Darcy do and what did this suggest?
surrened pontefrat castle (gateway to north) with no resistance suggesting his argreement with the rebellion
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What other important city also then fell?
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Where did the pilgrims then move?
to doncaster and were met by Duke of norfolk (representing king at R.don)
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How had the King and Government been caught off gaurd?
the pilgrims held virtually the whole of the North
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How did the Duke of Norfolk fair?
with a force of 8,000 men he was faced with a force larger than he could muster
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What were the nature of Askes intententions?
peaceful and he willingly neogaited, intending to peacefully get the rebels demands
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Did Aske want to remove the monarch?
no rather his argument was with eth kings 'evil advisors' than Henry
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What did Aske do on the 21st oct at Ponetfract?
argue the pilgrims case to Lord Darcy, the Archbishop of york and various other knights and gentlemen
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How were these demand presented and who were they presented to?
Pontefract articles and Duke of Norfolk (27th oct) and were later given to henry
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What did their demands inculde?
1. a return of limited papal supremacy, complaint about entry fines, Mary to be restored, greayer say for north and removal of cromwell
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What did Henry do on the 2nd Nov?
reject their demands but promised a pardon for all save the 10 ringleaders
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How did henry play for time?
by asking the pilgrims to clarfy their points , suggesting the leaders construct clearly written detailed demands
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When did this happen?
2nd and 4th December
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They were presented to the Duke of Norfolk who had been given what instructions?
to grant a general pardon, a prolonged truce and the promise that parliment would disscuss the issues that the rebels rasied
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What did Aske do on the 7th of december?
annoced terms to 30,000 followers at pontefract
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What happened the next day?
the Lancaster herald formally read the kings pardon to the rebels who then disprised- Askes submitted and abaned the title of captin and removed his badge
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Following the truce what did Askes do?
Toured the north trying to seal the deal he had made to the gentry
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What did a diaffected rebel, Sir Francis Biogod feel and plan to do?
he remained unconviced how how sincere the government was and planned to capture hull and scarbrough
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What did Biogod hope Norfolk would do?
act as a go between
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When did the rising begin and end?
16th Jan 1537 but only asted a few days
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What did Biogod do after this attempt?
fled to Cumberland which itself launched an unsuccessful attack on Carlisle in early Febuary- bigod caught and arrested
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How did Bigods rising help Henry?
Henry had no intention of honuring the deal he had made and bigods rising provided him with the evidence that the rebels were acting in bad faith, alowing retrobution to begin
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How many were executed and who did this inculde?
178, commons, gentry and nobilty inculding Askse, Lord Darcy and Bigod
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Who were on the juries?
friends of the accused who had to seal theri fate
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How was Askes end differant to the other rebels?
majority were executed in london but Aske was returned to york for execution as a gesture of henrys control
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When and how did Aske die?
hung in chains, 12th July 1537
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How were the Percy family destroyed?
Northumberland agredd to hand over his lands to the crown and his brother Thomas Percy was beheaded
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How was the council of the North reorganised to ensure greater control of the North?
became resonsible for Law and order north of the river trent, nominated and oversaw JPs and dealt with more serious crimes such as treason
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How did the failed rebelion affect the kings authority in the north?
felt more directly and rapidly- a lilttle later Henry showed his authority to the North with a grand progress which left london on the 30th june 1541 (ppl gave gifts & had to submit to him)
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What was one reason why POG was such a big threat?
hard for henry to raise an army big enough to defeat the 30,000 stron rebel army and there was no one capble of leading such a force
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Why was the POG not just a threat in the North?
it was not just the North that were angry with his polices and if the rebels had marched south others would have joined them
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What was the extent of foregein involment in POG?
real danger that foregein nation could use the distruption in the north to attack the south of england and IF the pope denounced henry and urger catholics to join the rebels his positio would have been even weaker
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How did emerge stronger after the rebellion?
rebels defaeted and anyone else considering a future rebellion knew the consequnces- the victory also gave him freedom to implment religous changes (major reformation againsit monastries in 1338)
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How did the rising send herny a warning?
made him more cautious when it came to allowing Cromwell and Crammer free regin to add more regilous changes to the ones he had alredy made
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How are the demands of the pontefract artcles split?
9 were regoilus, 6 were political and the rest were a combination
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how does the religous imagery suggest reglion was important to the rebels?
on their flag was the 'Five wounds of christ' and very name pilgrimage- howver the full name of the rebellion POG for the common wealth brings the wider issues into play (political)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What were the dates of the risings?


linconshire= oct 1536 (1-11) , POG= Oct-dec (8-8), Bigod= jan- feb (16-10)

Card 3


How important was this rebellion?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What did Aske the leader of the pilgrimage claim the 'greatest cause' of the rising was?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why were the monatries popular institutions?


Preview of the front of card 5
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